ISSN-2231 0495

An Analytical and Comparative Study Of ICSE, CBSE and Jharkhand Board Curricula with Special Reference To 9th and 10th Standard

  

An Analytical and Comparative Study Of ICSE, CBSE and Jharkhand Board Curricula with Special Reference
To 9th and 10th Standard

 

Sunny Jacob S.J.
Principal,
De Nobili School,
FRI, Dhanbad

 

Introduction: Aims and Objectives of the project

The current study is an analysis of the three main boards’ curricula for 9th and 10th classes of students. It is not a comprehensive analysis or an exhaustive comparative study of the three. However a sincere attempt is made to know and learn more on these three significant boards that we are familiar with. As educators we must know the similarities and dissimilarities of various syllabi that are prevalent in our educational system. Every now and then we hear about the reform made by the boards aiming at the holistic development of students. We also know that CBSE and ICSE are the two main boards in India imparting quality education to millions of students. There are State Boards too, under the con-current list, prepared curricula and syllabi for regional students.

There are lots of opinions among the parents, teachers and students about the superiority of one board over the other. Some consider CBSE board-based syllabus is to be good I have met number of parents with lots of doubts in their minds about the quality of the main two boards. There are perceptions spreading around that CBSE is better for all. Is it true? If so, on what basis? These questions will be answered only when we make an objective study of the two and compare and contrast them.

This current study is part of our B Ed study requirement under Theory of Education. It is a very practical study of the three curricula, which we are familiar with. As students of education we are supposed to have in-depth knowledge of the major patterns of education in India. With this aim in mind we enter into this comparative study of the three major boards of education and their curricula.


 

The figure No.1 clearly depicts the importance of primary and secondary levels of education since India has more than 33 % of population below the age of 15. It is substantially a large number and India has them more than many of the countries in Asia. Therefore, ‘a strong and effective curricula and school education system is expected of, because, educational aims are manifold. Mainly they are; Individual, social, vocational, liberal, harmonious development, moral character building, cultural, complete living, spiritual, and democratic’ (Walia) .   So the study which we undertake here will tell us how far these aims are incorporated in the boards that are our focus here.

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Figure No.1

National Curriculum Framework- 2005: The Basis of All Secondary Educational Curriculum Reforms In India Today

The whole reform frame work of Indian education in the primary, Upper Primary and Secondary level has been based on the National Curriculum Framework 2005. Therefore, it is apt for us to see the salient features of NCF in brief. Because all the three boards have framed their curriculum based on the principle placed before us by NCF. Some of the features are:

  1. NCF 2005 is influenced by Prof. Yash Pal’s monograph Learning Without Burden (1993) and is driven by four ‘guiding Principles”,
    1. Connecting knowledge to life outside the school;
    2. Ensuring that learning is shifted away from rote methods;
    3. Enriching the curriculum to provide for overall development of children rather than remaining textbook centric,
    4. Making examinations more flexible and integrated with classroom life.
  2. NCF 2005 bases itself on the constitutional vision of India as a secular, egalitarian and pluralistic society founded on the values of social justice and equality.
  3. There is a renewed attempt to implement the three-language formula in a bid to preserve the multilingual character of Indian society while acquiring proficiency in English. The mother tongue, including some tribal languages, has been recognised as the best medium of instruction.
  4. NCF envisages that the syllabi burden be reduced and it includes all left-out groups. For instance, paramount importance is given to gender justice and sensitivity towards tribal, Dalit and minority issues in social sciences.
  5. In teaching, an interactive approach rather than instructional one is more desirable. It envisions the participation of ‘out of school’ agencies who would provide “work benches’ for children. This would not only inculcate a healthy attitude towards all kinds of occupation but also enhance the overall skills of children across the board and instils respect for all kinds of work.
  6. Critical pedagogy is emphasised to enable children to look at social issues from different perspectives and how such issues are connected to their lives. It entails the acceptance of multiple views on social issues and a commitment to democratic forms of interaction.
  7. It gives special attention to certain groups like the Dalits or tribal people, children with disabilities and girl children for these learners are historically viewed as slow, uneducable and fearful of learning.
  8. The NCF points to the fact that the constitutional value of equality can be upheld only if teachers are trained to treat all children equally. For this, teachers need to be trained on the cultural and socio-economic diversity that children bring along with them to school.
  9. In science education, information and communication technology should be used more and rote learning should be discouraged. It should enable children to examine and analyse every day. Experiences and concern for environment should be emphasised in every subject. Teaching Mathematics should enhance the child’s resources to think, visualise and handle abstractions, to formulate and solve problems.(Norbert Menezes s.j.) Our current study is an attempt to see three of the main board’s curriculums is formed and reformed time and again to achieve the goals set by the NC framework 2005.

What is Curriculum?

The original word for curriculum is Latin term Currere, which means run a race course in order to reach a goal. There is a difference between syllabus and Curriculum. Syllabus means the outline of which the teacher has to teach under a subject at a particular stage. Curriculum means totality of experiences that a pupil receives through manifold activities at school. Thus Curriculum refers to all that goes on in the lives of the children parents and teachers. It is also made up of everything that surrounds the student in his/her working hours.

Curriculum updating is a continuous process and hence the Boards bring out revised curricula every year. It is obligatory for the Schools and the students preparing for the Board's examination of a particular year to follow the syllabi, courses and the books prescribed by it for that year. No deviation from the ones prescribed is permissible.

Need For Curriculum Development

When we look at the need for curriculum and its constant development we see certain important points that make its development.  They are;

1. Deeper interest in education

2. New avenues of knowledge in a changing world

3. Impact of globalization

4. Selection from the vast fund of knowledge.

5. New strategies and models of teaching

6. Renewed relationship between the teacher and the child.

Stages of Curriculum Development

There are five stages of curriculum development. They are;

1. Selection of aims and objectives

2. Selection of learning experiences

3. Selection of content

4. Organization and integration of content & learning experiences

5. Evaluation

Principle of Curriculum

1. Principle of child- centeredness. These include;

-Attending to the needs & interests

-recognizing and accommodating the different starting points, learning styles and previous experiences of individual students, and groups of students.

2. Principle of Flexibility (ready to adapt new trends as and when   necessary)

3. Principle of variety (no mono culture)

4. Principle of integration (ready to integrate the values)

5. Principle of validity (applicable everywhere)

6. Principle of comprehensiveness (it is not narrow)

7. Principle of relation to life (it is related to human life and progress)

8. Principle of totality of experiences (not isolated experience)

9. Principle of correlation (linked to one another)

10. Principle of democratic life (It is our national ethos)

11. Principle of learnability (ready to learn new things from others)

12. Principle of evaluation and continual and renewable

13. Principle of forward look (progressive look)

14. Principle of creativity (there is always a better way)

15. Principle of utility (useful to the learner)

Including only those learning experiences which are responsive to social context and technological change and meet students’ needs from that contextual and change process. Encouraging effective use of new technologies as tools for learning. Curriculum has to be prepared in accordance with all these principles.

Application of Curriculum

Curriculum is aimed at to develop faculties of critical thinking, abstraction, insight, skills and competence at a higher level. The curriculum lays the foundation for secondary education in India. Our education is critical to social and economic development and growth. Rates of return on secondary education are high. Another important factor, in my opinion, is international competitiveness. It has to aim at Gender equity. A well balanced curriculum is a requirement for primary and secondary teachers. It helps poverty reduction and equity because 19% of world’s children live in India. Young people comprise 42% of country’s total population. Actually they are a voiceless and vulnerable group but they are the future of the nation. They cannot advocate for themselves. We believe that the well- being of society depends on investment in development of children. The guiding principles of Secondary Education are, therefore, Universal Access, Equality and Social Justice. With this intend in mind norms for schooling to be developed for each state with common national parameters (see NCF-2005). In short, the application of curriculum is to make secondary education of good quality available, accessible and affordable to all young persons. 

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Figure No.2: Reforms in Secondary Education

Syllabi of ICSE, CBSE and JB

Here we are presenting briefly the syllabus patterns of ICSE, CBSE, and JB special reference to 9 and 10. Each is separately dealt with and analysis is done on the basis of the available data. Each board is unique and contributing to the nation’s educational endeavours. The syllabus largely comes under the curriculum framework.

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Figure No.3

History of ICSE

The COUNCIL was established in 1958 by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate to ensure that its examinations become adapted to the educational needs of the country and assign the ultimate control of the same on the COUNCIL. The COUNCIL was registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860 on 19 December, 1967. The ICSE is short form of Indian Certificate for Secondary Education. It was established by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. The council conducts an all India exam for Class 10 called ICSE (Indian Certificate for Secondary Education) and for class 12 called the Indian School Certificate (ISC).

The board conducts final examinations every spring: the All India Secondary School Examination (AISSE) for class 10 and All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) for class 12. The board also annually conducts the AIEEE exam for admission to undergraduate courses in engineering and architecture in numerous colleges spread over India. The board (ISC) was formed on November 3, 1962 (1962-11-03) and is recognized under the type - Governmental Board of School Education. Its headquarters is located in New Delhi, India. The Official languages are Hindi & English.

Scope of ICSE Curriculum and Syllabus

Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board conducts ICSE examinations annually through the medium of English.  It is a non-governmental and private board of education in India for grade 10. The board conducts ICSE examinations at various states/ territories nationwide.  The aim of the examination is to assess a student’s proficiency in general education (comprising of 7 subjects). The examinations are based on the curriculum prescribed by CISCE Board. The framework of the examinations is largely based on the recommendations of the New Education Policy 1986 (India) and revised based on National Curriculum Framework (NCF)-2005.

ICSE examinations are conducted for seven subjects that classified into three groups. Each subject may have 1 to 3 papers, thus the total number of papers in any ICSE examination ranges between 8 and 12 papers.

Group I consists of four compulsory subjects including English and Social Science.

Group II consists of 10 subject to choose any two, including Mathematics, Science, Economics and Computer Science.

Group III consists of 13 subjects to choose any one, including Computer Applications, Art, Performing Arts, Home Science, Fashion Designing, Yoga and Foreign Language.

A student is supposed to choose any two from Group II and any one from Group III. All papers from Group I are compulsory.

Syllabus of ICSE 9 for 2012-13

The details of subjects are given below: Subjects and the List of Prescribed Books (Languages) for Class 9

Biology

Chemistry

Classical Language

Commercial Applications

Commercial Studies

Computer Applications

Computer Science

Economic Applications

Economics

English

Environmental Application

Environmental Education

Environmental Science

Geography

History

Mathematics

Modern Foreign Language - Grp1

Modern Foreign Language - Grp2

Modern Foreign Language - Grp3

Physics

Regulations

Second Language - Indian Languages

Second Language - Sanskrit

SUPW and Community Service

Subjects and the List of Prescribed Books (Languages) for Class 10          (2013)

Biology

Chemistry

Classical Language

Commercial Applications

Commercial Studies

Computer Applications

Computer Science

Economic Applications

Economics

English

Environmental Applications

Environmental Education

Environmental Science

Geography

History

Mathematics

Modern Foreign Language-Grp1

Modern Foreign Language-Grp2

Modern Foreign Language-Grp3

Physics

Regulations

Second Language - Indian Languages

Second Language - Sanskrit

SUPW and Community Service

The ICSE board follows the basics strengthening syllabus. Unlike in CBSE, as a student moves to higher standard, he once again has the previous standards basics in his new syllabus. In ICSE all the introduction is repeated and then quadratic equations are handled. Even questions are based on the basics. This makes the basics of the topic very strong. This helps the student a lot of confidence when higher studies are involved. (Ref. ICSE March 2013, Regulations & Syllabuses)

CBSE

The CBSE board is short form of Central Board of Secondary Education. It prepares the syllabus for students up to Class 12. The curriculum is set by National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). The board conducts India's two nation-wide board examinations: the All India Secondary School Examination for Class 10 and the All India Senior School Certificate Examination for Class 12. Many schools are affiliated to CBSE syllabus.

CBSE class 9 and 10 syllabus

Languages – Communicative Language Teaching

English

Japanese

Sanskrit

German

French

Bahasa Maleyu

Mathematics

Science

Social Science

I.T.

Enrichment activities

Examination Reforms

Disaster Management

Classes IX, X

Health Manuals- An Overview

Comprehensive School Health Manuals (C.S.H.M):

Holistic health (physical, mental, emotional and psychological health).

Formal and informal approaches in curriculum pedagogy for health promotion.

Emphasis on providing a safe school environment.

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Figure No.4

Uniqueness of the CBSE Pattern

The CBSE syllabus is a cumulative syllabus. The syllabus is prepared so that the contents are in a flow and linked with each other. For example, in Algebra, there is introduction to numbers in one standard such as integers, whole numbers, real numbers and complex numbers. In the higher standard, there is detailed approach to quadratic numbers which is based purely on complex numbers introduction. Similarly, all the subjects have a cumulative syllabus which helps students not to forget the previous contents. Also, this makes remembering simple. One disadvantage is the length of the syllabus. It has vast syllabus. It includes numerous topics as compared to ICSE. Apart from basics, high end applications are involved which makes it difficult for the teachers to complete the syllabus. (Ref. www.cbse.curriculum,com)

History of Jharkhand Board

Since the creation of State there has been considerable expansion and improvement in educational facilities and enrolment at elementary stages. As evident from survey reports conducted by different agencies Department is striving hard to successfully implement the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Programme (SSA), the flagship programme for achieving the goals of elementary education. School education has four broad stages Primary (I-V), Upper Primary (VI-VIII), Secondary (IX-X) and Higher Secondary +2 (XI-XII) level schooling. SSA has achieved the goals of access and enrolment to a large extent covering Primary and Upper Primary stages. Now in the 11th Plan period stress will be given on the quality in elementary sector and universalization of secondary and higher secondary education.

Access, quality, lack of infrastructure is the areas of concern. Inclusion of modern time tuned curriculum and use of ICT for imparting education and good quality infrastructure is an urgently felt need. HRD (Primary/Secondary/Higher Education) raises the Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) in secondary education (Classes IX and X) from 12% to 25% 2011-12.

JHARKHAND BOARD CLASS IX SYLLABUS- 2012-13

Language – Hindi ‘A’

Language - Urdu

Language - Bangla

Language - Odia

English

Mathematics

Science (Physics, Chemistry & Biology)

Science Practical (Written)

Social Science (History, Geography & Civics)

Sanskrit

Language – Hindi ‘B’

Language – Parsi

Home Science (Theory Paper)

Home Science (Practical)

Commerce

JHARKHAND BOARD CLASS X SYLLABUS- 2012-13

Language – Hindi ‘A’

Language – Urdu

Language – Bangla

Language – Odia

English

Mathematics

Mathematics (Practical)

Science (Physics, Chemistry & Biology)

Science Practical (Written)

Social Science (History, Geography & Civics)

Sanskrit

Language – Hindi ‘B’

Language – Parsi

Home Science (Theory Paper)

Home Science (Practical)

Commerce

(Ref. Educational Curriculum 2012-13)

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Figure No.5

AN ANALYSIS OF ICSE, CBSE AND JHARKHAND BOARD CURRICULA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STD 9th AND 10TH.

This is an analysis of the three main boards of curricula for 9th and 10th classes of students. It is not a comprehensive analysis or an exhaustive comparative study of the three. However a sincere attempt is made to know and learn more on these three significant boards that we are familiar with. As educators we must know the similarities and dissimilarities. Every now and then we hear the reform made by the boards and the children’s holistic development. It is worth mentioning that the syllabi of all the three boards under our purview are more or less have the same subjects. There are differences in quantity of subjects among the boards; however the content is more or less similar, even though stress and focus is not the same.

A common misconception is that CBSE and ICSE are both education boards similar to SSC boards of state government. CBSE is an education board but ICSE is the certificate offered after completion of the course and it is not a board. Still ICSE board is commonly used to mention this course. State boards largely look into curricula formed to cater to the needs of regional languages. In Jharkhand the Board follow the CBSE pattern under NCERT.

However, it is good to remember that the programmes of 10 + 2+3 system is followed throughout the country. “Under the three language formula primary education id to be imparted through the mother tongue of the child. Mother tongues is to be regarded as the first languages. Where the mother tongue is not Hindi, the second language should be Hindi. Third language is to be English or any other foreign languages”. (Chaube, p. 284)

Examinations

First of all both the ICSE and the CBSE boards conduct examinations very efficiently and result is declared on time. Corrections are done very systematically, and results are available on line to all. Certificates are sent to the respective schools on time. There is no laxity in this matter so far. However we cannot say the same about Jharkhand board. In the CBSE syllabus examinations, mostly objective type of questions is asked. The CBSE system deals with more one sentence answers. The marking scheme does not give priority to writing lengthy answers. It is mostly based on to the point answers and extremely relevant answers. But the syllabus in general is very vast. Thus it takes long time to study and prepare for the exams. The CBSE exams are considered very tough.

Every subject of class 9 of CISCE board have exams of 80 marks theory papers whose syllabus we supply and 20 marks internal paper which totally depends on class performance, project work and attendance of a students.

In the ICSE syllabus examinations, there is a balance between objective and subjective questions. Both have equal priority or weight. One important distinguishing feature in ICSE syllabus is the importance given to projects. Projects are very important and they form the basis of marking scheme in the performance of the student. This makes the student extremely active and it improves his thinking ability. Overall, both syllabi have their advantages and disadvantages in terms of the examinations conducted.

Use In Competitive Examinations

Competitive entrance exams at the all-India level like IIT-JEE, AIEEE and AIPMT are completely based on the CBSE syllabus. If a child has completed his school with CBSE syllabus, it becomes very simple for him to adjust to the format of these exams as they are completely objective type. Also, UPSC exams conducted for civil services follow the same pattern.

ICSE syllabus is in addition to the common tests in India, particularly important for students who prefer higher education abroad. Exams like GRE, TOEFL and GMAT have a lot of verbal ability testing. In ICSE syllabus, verbal ability is highly improved. A lot of stress is given to teaching of grammar and increasing the vocabulary of the student. So, ICSE is preferred by students who like to go abroad for future education.

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Figure No.6

CBSE syllabus and ICSE syllabus each have their own merits and demerits. Most of the schools follow the CBSE syllabus as it is very useful for most of the competitive examinations in India. ICSE syllabus is preferred for English improvement and it is a simpler syllabus compared to ICSE.

“In ICSE, all subjects other than Science and Computers, students must submit compulsory coursework assignments. In groups I and II they count for 20% of the student's performance in the subject; in group III the assignments count for 50%. In Science and Computers, students are tested on their laboratory work”. (www.ICSEcurriculum.com)

In subjects where there is more than one paper, the mark in the subject is calculated by taking the average of all papers in the subject. Candidates appearing for the examination have to study seven subjects, with anywhere from 1 to 3 papers in each subject. This makes for a total of 8-12 papers, depending on the subjects. CBSE - The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is the Board of Education for school level in India of Central Government.

Difference between ICSE and CBSE syllabus

With regards to 9 and 10 class syllabi there is no difference between the two in a board. However, 10 class exams are Board exams while the 9 class exams are conducted by the schools. In ICSE 9th syllabus is important because in the board exams 9th syllabus too is incorporated. Not so in CBSE.

Many parents often face the problem when they have to decide which board they want to put their children in. It can be a bit confusing with the abundance of choices that are now available: ICSE, CBSE, IGCSE, SSC, etc. But the two main boards that seem to be having a monopoly in the country are CBSE and ICSE. There is quite a bit of a difference between ICSE and CBSE syllabus, which is a known fact.

Wider Acceptability If parents seem to be transferring from one place to another due to job or other reason than it is advisable for them to put their child in a CBSE board school. ICSE prevails in all the commonwealth countries. This is an advantage if you seem to re-locating on an international basis. The student can get admission easily if that is the case.

Number of Subjects ICSE syllabus, on the whole is considered to be a little tougher than CBSE. Where ICSE has two English papers, CBSE has one. Where ICSE has three Science papers (Physics, Chemistry and Biology), CBSE has one. Where ICSE has two social studies papers (History and Geography), CBSE has one.

Emphasis on Maths and Science- CBSE is known for its emphasis on logic based subjects like Maths and Science. Their level of difficulty in the aspect is known to tougher than that of ICSE. Even the entrance exam for IIT is CBSE, which proves that they have a strong hold on subjects related to engineering. While, ICSE curriculum is quite vast when it comes to Maths and Science, it is unique and quality based. Jharkhand Board is its nascent stage still, hopefully they too will have a blameless examination system in the near future as it too have introduced online results etc. However proper teaching and quality teachers, etc. have to be the concern of JAC Board.

Emphasis on Language The difference between ICSE and CBSE syllabus is the emphasis on language that ICSE provides. It has two papers in English and one on the second language. It also has Shakespeare as a part of the syllabus. While CBSE provides a basis for typical careers such as engineering or medicine, ICSE provides a basis for more atypical careers such as fashion designing, cookery, etc. It is also advised that if the student wants to accomplish a career in Management, then ICSE is a more favourable choice.

Over Sea Educational Opportunities Due to the command on language that ICSE has to offer, it is better that the student takes up ICSE if he or she has any plan of going abroad for education. CBSE doesn't offer such a command over language as in the case of ICSE. Jharkhand Board does not have this focus on language. This is perhaps due to lack of trained teachers in its kitty. Jharkhand Board does not have this excellent over-sea outlook.

In short the above points sum up the difference between ICSE and CBSE syllabi ICSE syllabus is good for those who are planning to shift abroad after few years, as this ICSE Board Syllabus focuses more on English strengthening. Its format is little different from the CBSE as it covers the necessary introduction of the previous class basics on every given topic in its new syllabus. Example, if complex numbers are there in last class, then in Syllabus for ICSE Board, all the introduction of complex number gets repeated and then the quadratic equations are explained. It is a good technique to strengthen the basics of the student. And once their fundamentals are clear then it will enhance their confidence level, which helps them in their higher studies.

For the purpose of understanding deeper about the similarities and dissimilarities, merits or demerits let us look at the two major boards. All our questions will be answered only when we make an objective study of the two and compare and contrast them. Let us look at some of the prominent points of arguments in favour of the CBSE Board. They are:

  1. The CBSE syllabus is presented in a more scientific manner. The entire syllabus is divided into units and every unit is allotted the number of periods required to cover it in the year and also the weightage of marks it will carry in the examination. Thus, the teacher and student can plan the study of the various segments of the syllabus accordingly. Not so in ISC.
  2. The examination pattern of entrance examinations (IIT-JEE & PMT) follows that of CBSE since CBSE conducts these examinations. ICSE has no role in this even though ICSE students excel in all these examinations. But perception matters in choosing the stream.
  3. The ICSE syllabus (Class X) is very heavy compared to that of CBSE. ICSE has two papers in English, whereas CBSE has only one. ICSE has three papers in Science (Physics, Chemistry & Biology) whereas CBSE has only one. ICSE has two papers in Social Studies (History & Geography) whereas CBSE has only one. The school bag of an ICSE student is much heavier than that of a CBSE student.
  4. Environmental Education is compulsory at the ICSE examinations whereas this is not so at the CBSE examination.
  5. The CBSE is giving only grades in the examination results. This is seen as a progressive move. ICSE has not made such an announcement as yet. They are planning to follow suit.
  6. CBSE has in recent years been very proactive in devising new courses that are academic with a vocational viewpoint. It is more responsive to the needs of a dynamically changing pedagogical scenario. The NCERT connection makes it a very pro-active education board and not just an examining body.
  7. The concept of "Front Line Curriculum" has been put in place in CBSE that requires syllabi be done on an on-going basis and 10 per cent of irrelevant or outdated material is replaced with more pertinent matter.
  8. CBSE has well-networked state-and national-level sports (both indoor and outdoor) activities.

9.  Examination schedule in CBSE is more students friendly.

Conclusion

The purpose of Boards has been more than just examining the general education of students in affiliated schools. While they remain attentive to concerns of the students, they implement solutions to the concerns by improving syllabi, frameworks (for curriculum) and systems of assessment. Curricula are formed for the purpose and aims laid down by the NCF -2005.

India is a vast country with many sided diversities. However, the underlined Indian-ness, a general feeling of oneness is there among people. The curriculum is there to promote that oneness and unity among people. “There is no other problem in the field of education in our country which is more significant that evolving a pattern of education that can promote the idea of national integration among our children. To make our life worth living we should use education as an instrument for bringing about healthy and permanent understanding among various cultural and communal groups living in our country. We should make an educational effort to make a clean sweep of the dark forces of hatred and misunderstanding, suspicion etc. To shape the character and personality of the people and to promote among them the idea of national integration the educationists should come forward and take the lead”. (Theory of education)

Another point we must see is the number of people with disabilities in India is substantial and likely to grow - disability does not “go away” as countries get richer people with disabilities in India are subject to deprivation in many dimensions of their lives. Social attitudes and stigma play an important role in limiting the opportunities of disabled people for full participation in social and economic life, often even within their own families. India has one of the more progressive disability policy frameworks in the developing world. However, there remain huge challenges in operationalizing the policy framework. In this background we can see that the major two boards and the state boards are consciously made effort to reach out to this section by inclusive approach. All these are done to fulfil the needs and aims of the purpose of our education itself. The major functions of educational curricula are the following:

Functions of Education in individual life

1. Manifestation of innate powers

2. Harmonious development of personality.

3. Control, redirection & sublimation of instincts

4. Preservation of culture & civilization

5. Development of qualities of Leadership

6. Make adjusted to environment

7.  Preparation for adult life

8.  Provides complete living

9.  Development of social feeling

10. Creation of good citizens

11. Social Reforms

Functions of Education in Human life

1. Socialization of individual

2.  Development of individuality

3.  Development of character

4.  Satisfaction of needs

5.  Adaptation  to environment

6. physical development

7. Development of values

Functions of Education in National life

1. Training for leadership

2. Development of man power

3.  National  integration

4.  Emotional Integration

5.  Social efficiency

6. Social consciousness

7.  Civic sense

With the introduction of the Right to education act, and its various provisions, we believe that the educational reforms will take a new approach. Curriculum Revising Committee (CRC) has to cater to the needs of the underprivileged groups too. 25 % of opportunities have to be reserved for the weaker and marginalised sections. Therefore, it becomes a challenge and an opportunity to the educational boards and the ministry of HR to undertake new reforms and even pattern of education. Finally curriculum has to aim at the development of head, hart, and hand.

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Figure No.7

We believe that the aim of all the boards and their curricula and syllabi aim at the above three major educational functions, even though there is more emphasis on any one or more areas is predominant in a particular Board’s curriculum . The time-to-time up gradation of the curricula and hence the changing pattern of syllabi have to see the set goals and functions are in place.  However it is also a must that the Government and the policy makers must think in terms of allotting more money to the primary and secondary levels of education and help out the efficiency of the Boards by identifying resourceful persons to contribute to further the progressive movements of the curricula. The future of India depends on its present 42 percentage of school children. Always better education provides better citizens and better curriculum provides better education. Undoubtedly the future of India is being shaped in schools. And the makers of these shapes are teachers. As future teachers we believe, that such studies are a forward looking exercises for us to build the nation much stronger and worth.

References

Chaube, S. P. Dr., History of Indian Education, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra, (2007), p. 283.

Menezes, Norbert, S.J., Summary of National Curriculum Framework – 2005,

Walia, J.S.,Dr., Philosophical and Sociological Basis of Education, Ahim Paul Publishers, Jalandhar City, (2008), p. 73

Walia, J.S.,Dr., Theory of Education, Ahim Paul Publication, Jhalandar, p. 286

ICSE March 2013, Regulations and Syllabuses, New Delhi, (Official).

Educational Curriculum, 2012-13, Jharkhand Board, Ranchi.

Web Sites:

www.icse curriculum.com (google.com)

www.cbse curriculum.com (google.Com)

 

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