ISSN-2231 0495

English

Teachers’ adequacy in using Computer Assisted Learning in the Classroom

Teachers’ adequacy in using Computer Assisted Learning in the Classroom

Rakesh Kumar

Assistant Professor

M. V. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,

University of Delhi.

Abstract

There had been a number of studies that show the importance of using computers in the classroom. But whether or not the teachers will use it on their own is related to comfortability of using it. The present study tries to analyse the responses of teachers in this regard. The focal area in this study relate to pre-service teachers’ perceptions about their adequacy in using computers in the classroom. The analysis is based on the responses received from the sample of 37 science teachers on the issue – “How  comfortable  do  you  feel  in  using  computers  in  the  classroom?”. Written responses and semi-structured interviews forms the basis of analysis. The analysis is done in two parts. The first part of this analysis is related with the comfortability and the second part is related with their views about why they think it is important for them to use computers in classrooms. It is also important to mention that the second part had just emerged out of their responses and was not elicited. The present study is descriptive one and contributes towards developing an understanding on the issue of application of computers in the classroom situations. Almost all of the pre-service teachers’ who gave a clear response, were found to be comfortable in using computers in the classroom. This would indicate that the young population joining the teaching community is ready for using computers in the classroom in terms of their comfortability. Pre-service teachers’ are found to be motivated in using computers in the classroom for different reasons. Some of the reasons cited were related to the ability of computers in creating interest amongst the learners, their ability in being more expressive, take immediate feedback from the learners, assist children with special needs, developing creative environment, bringing back the learner’s attention to classroom tasks, creating opportunities for individualised work and the ability to deal the insight into three-dimensional modelling. Some teachers have warned about this use of computers in social networking and gaming and some possible indiscipline in the classroom.  There are some issues raised like non-availability of computer assisted infrastructure in the classroom.

 

1. Context and Background:

There had been a number of studies that show the importance of using computers in the classroom. But whether or not the teachers will use it on their own is related to comfortability of using it. The present study tries to analyse the responses of teachers in this regard. The focal area in this study relate to pre-service teachers’ perceptions about their adequacy in using computers in the classroom. The analysis is based on the responses received from the sample of 37 (out of which 30 could contribute to total data collection) science teachers on the issue – “How  comfortable  do  you  feel  in  using  computers  in  the  classroom?”. Written and responses and semi-structured interviews forms the basis of analysis. The analysis is done in two parts. The first part of this analysis is related with the comfortability and the second part is related with their views about why they think it is important for them to use computers in classrooms. It is important to mention that the second part had just emerged out of their responses and was not elicited. The present study is descriptive one and contributes towards developing an understanding on the issue of application of computers in classroom situations.

Even if Computer-Assisted Learning is emerging as being more effective than traditional classroom teaching, learners’ and teachers’ approach is an important consideration for introducing Computer Assisted Learning in school settings. Let us see what related studies show in this area.

(Chanlin, 2006) investigates the factors that influence teachers’ use of technology in creative and effective teaching-learning process. The study identified four factors namely environmental, personal, social and curricular factors. The findings depict that not only creative teaching-learning environment and personal factors influenced the integration of computer technology but also social and curricular factors surrounding teaching-learning issue.  (Demetriadis, 2003) the Greek secondary school teachers' attitude towards the introduction of ICT in the curriculum was presented by the researchers and it shows teachers are interested in using ICT to attain a better professional profile only to take advantage of any possible learning benefits offered by ICT but always within the context of the school culture.

(Vale, Gilah, & Leder, 2004) investigates gendered views of computer-based mathematics among junior secondary learners. The qualitative data that were gathered showed that girls and boys held similar views about the use of computers in mathematics. However, girls were more likely than boys to give responses about whether computers would help and enhance their performance in mathematics or not. Boys more often viewed using computers in mathematics as a source of pleasure and a way of making mathematics relevant.  For boys, computers as a source of success in mathematics or enhancement to their performance were more indirect relationships and concerned changing the ways of learning. Year level was a factor in attitudes to computer-based mathematics, suggesting that the length of time using computers in mathematics, the nature of the learning environment or the mathematics curriculum also impact on learners' views. Girls who rate themselves highly in achievement in computing are more likely to have a positive attitude to computer-based mathematics. Whilst this was also the case for boys, boys who aspired to achieve at high levels in computing were also more likely to be positive about the use of computers in mathematics. The study suggests that teachers of mathematics in the middle years of schooling need to be aware of the balance that they need to achieve in meeting the needs of both boys and girls.

(Dhume, Pattanshetti, Kamble, & Prasad, 2012) indicates that teachers' reflection on their practices might result in increased awareness of their own practices, shared planning and evaluation of the teaching-learning-learning process created an appropriate context for teachers' professional learning.   The study argues that teachers need personal experience with the use of information and communication technologies if the use of information and communication technologies if they are to make them an essential component of the learning environment).

(B.H.H. & Manickam, 2002) studied attitudes of teachers and correlates for Computer Assisted Instruction. The Findings show: (1) there was no significant difference on the teacher competency in the pre and post scores or between the experimental and control group. But teacher competency was positively related to post knowledge in CAI of the experimental group. (2) There was significant difference between the groups in their attitude towards computer education. As a result of training in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), the attitude of the experimental group became more favourable towards computer education. (3) There was correlation between age and attitude towards use of computer. (4) There was significant difference in the pre and post scores of the experimental group on knowledge in CAI and attitude towards use of computer.

(Medhi & Toyama, 2007) presents the use of full-context video to motivate and aid non-literate, first-time users of PCs to successfully navigate a computer application with minimal assistance. Following previous work focused on non-literate users, the study observed that in spite of our subjects' understanding of the UI mechanics, they experienced barriers beyond illiteracy in interacting with the computer: Lack of awareness of what the PC could deliver, fear and mistrust of the technology, and lack of comprehension about how information relevant to them was embedded in the PC.

The study by (Gopal, 2011) reflects on the status of the use of computers in teacher education. This study highlights that in the field of education, computers have become an important metaphor to denote technology in the classroom. Keeping this in mind, most teacher education institutes in India have introduced a course in Computers in Education, but due to the paucity of time in the academic year, many teacher education institutes briefly cover the aspects of technology education in their classroom. As an intervention, this study discussed adapting an Interactive Video Based Self Learning Module on Open Office Impress in the Dimensions of the Cognitive Apprenticeship Framework. The results of the study showed that this material augmented the Pre-service teachers' technology skills in directly using, applying and learning technology (Gopal, 2011).

(Ronen, 1993) describes the designing and using of an open graphic interface called RAY, for instruction in geometrical optics. The RAY program offers a learning and a problem solving environment in which the learner can actively provide his/her own feedback without any kind of hesitation. However, a problem witnessed with this program is that learners cannot make a distinction between the representations of physical entities (light rays) and a geometrical construction (for instance, the continuation of a ray behind the mirror) since both are represented in a ray diagram by lines. A research conducted on its effectiveness reveals that it can indeed contribute to overcoming some learning difficulties, which learners have.

The study of (Wegerif, 1998) outlines, illustrates and evaluates a distinctive approach to the use of computers within the primary curriculum. The results of the evaluation show (a) that the quality of interaction around computers can be improved by off-computer coaching in exploratory talk and (b) that the approach to design is effective in stimulating talk which supports curriculum learning. The researchers argue that this framework is not limited to citizenship and science but could, in principle, be applied across the curriculum.

(Das, 2003) assessed the attitude of learners and teachers towards computer education, infrastructure facilities in the schools and gender disparities in computer science in both Government and private secondary schools of Assam. The Findings suggest: (1) Learners have a positive attitude and outlook, towards computer education received in their respective schools. Some learners have suggested a revamping of the traditional modes of teaching by introducing computers in teaching which they think will make their education more exciting and interesting. (2) Teachers are confident about their knowledge of the subject; they are not devoid of anxiety. Majority of the learners teachers have recognized the important role that computers play in today's society. (3) The English medium learners were found to display higher level of confidence, a sense of competence in their approach to and use of computers than the Assamese medium learners. (4) In spite of funding and all other infrastructural facilities provided by the North Eastern Council in a collaborative venture with the Board of Secondary Education Assam, nothing fruitful or lasting evolved from the course of computer education imparted to the learners of government schools. (51 Girls have a positive attitude towards computers as being more user-friendly and express less anxiety about the use of computers.)

(Grant, 2005) evaluates the findings of one school experience with using mobile laptop carts, or computers on wheels (COWs) to effect change in teacher practice and learner learning. The learners identified electronic presentations: writing 'stories'; graphing things like an ordered pair’s lesson in mathematics; using draw/paint to create an original flower in science. The study emphasized three factors as indicators for change in impacting technology integration: teacher technological knowledge and efficacy; pedagogical knowledge and a supportive community.

 Research Methodology

 Research Questions and Objective

The following questions are focussed:

  • Do the pre-service teachers feel comfortable in using computers in the classroom?
  • How do the pre-service teachers relate to Computer Assisted Learning with the classroom settings?

The study has focused on the following objectives:

  • To find out if the pre-service teachers feel comfortable in using computers in the classroom or not.
  • To understand pre-service teachers perception about the relationship of computer-assisted learning in their classroom settings.

 Methodology, sample and tools:

38 Pre-Service science teachers who are the B.Ed. students of the two of Education in Delhi, India) were chosen as convenient samples for the study. Most of the observations, interpretations, analysis and reflections done by the participants were discussed with them also to develop their insight about their own science classrooms. These 38 prospective science teachers of the two colleges (MV College of Education and GRD College of Education in Delhi) who were chosen as samples for the study have henceforth been addressed as science teachers. These science teachers were also a connection to reach to the science learners in the schools. Thus an input from the science classrooms was available to the teachers during their school life experience program. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program.

Written responses and semi-structured interviews were used on the 38 pre-service teachers. But the data from 30 pre-service science teachers was collected. 8 Pre-service teachers became non-responding. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program as described later. Training of teachers was done for both data collection (one day) and analysis (three days). In addition, two days were devoted for reflection and discussion on resolution of the problems faced during the process.

Total 38 Pre-Service Science teachers that participated were from two B.Ed. colleges of University of Delhi and GGSIP University, Delhi. This “ensured participation of total 18 schools in which above Pre-Service teachers had their School Life Experience Program. These teachers had diverse graduation and post-graduation subjects.

 

Figure 1 - Classification of teachers’ sample

figure_1 


Figure 2 - Classification of School sample

39_figure_2
Figure 3
39_figure_3

Notations: G- Government; P- Private; G.A.-Government Aided; K.V.-Kendriya Vidyalaya

 

Figure 3: Teachers’ adequacy in using Computer Assisted Learning

Out of total 38 Pre-Service teachers, code numbers 1.01 to code number 1.30 were given to 30 Pre-service teachers from Guru Ram Dass College of Education and 8 Pre-Service teachers from Maharishi Valmiki College of Education received code numbers 2.01 to code number 2.08. Clearly, the sample is not a random sample but a purposive one. Although no deliberate attempt was made for the sample to be homogeneous or representative, it got addressed in the process to some extent. The science teachers belonged to different socio-economic backgrounds. The science learners’ belonged to different sorts of school settings. These types of schools included all boys’ school, all girls’ schools, government, government aided and public schools. Therefore, we can say that different socio-economic backgrounds and diversity in teaching-learning settings has been represented largely in the sample.

 Analysis Part 1

Comfortable

Out of 30 Teachers -

  • 12 were very comfortable in using computer while teaching.
  • 2 were not that comfortable in using computers in teaching.
  • Rest 16 teachers have not given their clear point of view about their adequacy in using computers as part of their teaching strategies.

 Analysis Part 2

Some more descriptions given by teachers

  • Computers can create interest among the learners and we can also explain some difficult concepts such as formation of waves, impact of collisions etc. using computer simulators. Although there are many benefits of computer but there should be a healthy and proper use of computer in teaching i.e. no social networking or gaming while teaching
  • Strength of learners is quite more and it generally takes much time in adjusting the learners and setting the computer because there was no facility of computers in classrooms and every time we have to move to computer laboratory. So it generally creates disturbance in such schools where there is no multimedia facility in classrooms.
  • Computers in the classroom include digital technology used to enhance, supplement,     or     replace     a      traditional      educational      curriculum. As computers have become more accessible, inexpensive, and powerful, the demand for this technology has increased. They fulfil the needs of teaching materials and are more expressive.
  • Computers allow learners with disabilities to become independent and hand in legible assignments, as well as provide learners with vast information. This is very comfortable to use, as compared to the rigorous and old methods of teaching. Computers help in developing the interests of learners in a particular subject.
  • By using computer we can decrease the overburden of learners’ stress & reduce many functions of teachers. Computers help teacher to make immediate feedback & responses to the learners. If develops creative environment in the classroom & independent learning to the learners.
  • The use of audio visual aids, images and in addition to its various interesting clips helps a teacher in bringing the attention and interest of learners to the topic.
  • To begin with, it might be difficult to maintain discipline but with the passage of time it will improve. With technological advancement, the teaching methods are also changing accordingly. Teachers in the modern classroom stand to benefit from integrating computer technology into their curriculum as learners can work through computer based activities at their own pace. Rather than 25 individuals working together on one activity, technology allows independent completion of work. Those who begin to fall behind can receive an instructor’s individualized attention while others can begin to tackle more complex tasks. So, using computers in the classroom has proved to be a more effective method of teaching. Therefore, everyone should have the knowledge of computer & must feel comfortable in using computers in their classroom.
  • Computers can allow learners to communicate with other learners, from other schools and improve professional communication skills. Learners with disabilities or illegible writing can use computers and therefore they can submit neat and legible assignments. Computers offer access to a wide variety of information, on a multitude of topics. Using computers in primary schools allow learners to acquire skills that will be necessary in later life.
  • We use computers to develop a presentation in a simple and effective manner.
  • They just use simple Microsoft paint tool and made a presentation on Microsoft Word. I was surprised to see the presentation. This shows that learners are interested in using computers to communicate their ideas and views so that they are easily grasped and understood.
  • Computer is quite helpful in classroom as through this we can give learners a three dimensional model which is not easy to show in real classroom, some chemistry experiments, physics experiments and some other experiments which are cannot be easily performed.

Conclusions

(Tanner, 1992) assesses the extent to which IT skills are used or developed within mathematics in Britain and examines factors, which are limiting development. The results of an action study project shows that beginners with computer software often need support in the classroom in the early stages; lack of access to computers is a problem for many mathematics teachers; and the integration of computer based lessons  into  schemes  of  work  facilitates  forward  planning  and  thus  access  to hardware. As per a survey conducted by the Apeejay Stya Educational Research Foundation (ASERF), it was found that unlike most other subject/domains of learning, infrastructure for a successful ICT programme requires intensive maintenance and management at all times, not just in terms of hardware components, but also Operating System software, application software tools, networking, internet bandwidth & content-filtering, antivirus management, power equipment, security (for both equipment and data) etc. This requires a perfect synthesis between teachers, administrators, hardware/software/power vendors. Many a times, a small snag in the system brings the entire ICT programme to a halt. The present study reveals that almost all of the pre-service teachers who gave a clear response, were found to be comfortable in using computers in the classroom. This would indicate that the young population joining the teaching community is ready for using computers in the classroom in terms of their comfortability. Pre-service teachers are found to be motivated in using computers in the classroom for different reasons. Some of the reasons cited were related to the ability of computers in creating interest amongst the learners, their ability in being more expressive, take immediate feedback from learners, assist children with special needs, developing creative environment, bringing back the learner’s attention to classroom tasks, creating opportunities for individualised work and the ability to deal the insight into three-dimensional modelling. Some teachers have warned about this use of computers in social networking and gaming and some possible indiscipline the classroom.  There are some issues raised like non-availability of computer assisted infrastructure in the classroom.

References:

  • B.H.H., J., & Manickam, L. (2002). Computer Assisted Instruction: Attitudes of Teachers and Correlates. In INDIAN EDUACATIONAL ABSTRACTS v.3, no. 2, July 2003 (pp 28-29) (Vol. 18, pp. 235–242).
  • Chanlin, L. J. (2006). Factors influencing technology integration in teaching: perspectives. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 43(1 SRC - GoogleScholar), 57–68.
  • Das. (2003). Computer Education in the Secondary schools of Assam. Indian Educational Abstracts, 3(July 2003), 28.
  • Demetriadis, S. (2003). Cultures in negotiation": Teachers’ acceptance/resistance attitudes considering the infusion of technology into schools. Computers and Education, 41(1 SRC - GoogleScholar), 19–37.
  • (pp. 1–10). Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6208609&isnumber=6208589
  • (pp. 183–190). http://doi.org/10.1109/T4E.2011.36
  • Grant, M. M. (2005). Computers on wheels: An alternative to “each one has one”. British Journal of Educational Technology, , ., 36(6 SRC - GoogleScholar), 1017–1034.
  • (pp. 1–9). Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4937400&isnumber=4937385
  • Ronen, M. (1993). To see or not to see: The eye in geometrical optics - when and how? Physics Education, 28(4 SRC - GoogleScholar), 52–59.
  • Tanner, H. (1992). Developing the use of IT within mathematics through action research. Computers and Education, 18(1-3), 143–148.
  • Vale, C. M., Gilah, C., & Leder, G. C. (2004). Student views of computer-based mathematics in the middle years: Does gender make a difference? Educational Studies in Mathematics, 56(2), 2–3 SRC – GoogleScholar.
  • Wegerif, R. (1998). Software design to support discussion in the primary curriculum. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 14(3 SRC - GoogleScholar), 199–211.

 

 

 

PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDIA

 

PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDIA

Dr. Sujit Bordhan
Deputy Registrar,
Srimanta Sankaradeva University of Health Sciences,
Guwahati, Assam

 

 

ABSTRACT

Over the last half a century and particularly, in the recent decades, teaching learning has been undergoing drastic changes. There has been a shift towards student centered classrooms with teacher’s role more as facilitator of learning rather than an autocratic master. Unlike in the past when the teacher was entrusted with transferring the contents of curriculum to a passive audience of students, today new experiments are being tried out in the classroom that includes project based learning, development of thinking skills, and discovery learning approaches. As part of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) the textbooks have also been modified. Many teachers are not properly trained in implementing the concepts behind the new curriculum and many are not equipped to properly implement the curriculum.

Key words: Teacher Education, Higher Education, Incompetency, Curriculum

INTRODUCTION

The funniest thing is that the teacher education centers and the curriculum followed in the teacher education have very little focus on new trends in education. The SSA training programs have excluded the teacher educators and have been confined to in-service teacher training alone. The pre-service teacher education sector has been kept away from the SSA and therefore, the teacher aspirants passing out of the B.Ed colleges get exposed to the new curriculum only when they join the schools.

Teacher education institutions have been proliferating and mushrooming all over the State with profit motives until the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) with its headquarters in Bangalore, came up with and insisted on mandatory norms and standards for these institutions. As a result of their intervention, many institutions have constructed buildings with classrooms and procured infrastructure to meet their standards. These institutions were even been forced to increase the salary of teacher educators to the basic amount in the government scale. But later, the effectiveness of NCTE intervention reduced and the powerful lobby of private education institutions had their way in running their teacher education shops.

There has been a great expansion of higher education over the years. Today, there are more than 200 universities and 8000 colleges. Kothari commission remarks "The destiny of India is being shaped in its classrooms." No doubt education plays a significant role in nation's development but the quality of education is greatly determined by the quality of teachers, therefore, great efforts were made and still are being made to improve the quality of teacher education. Some of the problems concerning teacher education are discussed below:

PROBLEM OF SELECTION

Defects of selection procedure lead to deterioration of the quality of teachers. Better selection method would not only improve the quality of training but also save the personal and social wastage. Some suggestions are mentioned:

(a) Candidates should be interviewed

(b) Test of General Knowledge should be applied.

(c) Test in school subjects.

(d) Test of language

(e) Test of intelligence should be administered

(f) Aptitude; interest and attitude inventory should be administered.

(g) A well direct guidance service should be provided.

DEFICIENCIES OF SMALL TIME PERIOD PROVIDED FOR TEACHER'S TRAINING

In India, this period is of one year after the graduation - the effective session being of eight to nine months. The main purpose of teacher education programme is to develop healthy attitude, broad based interest and values. It is not possible during the short duration of nine months.

INCOMPETENCY OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS

The existing training programme does not provide adequate opportunities to the student teachers to develop competency because the organizers of teacher's training programme are not aware of the existing problems of schools. Therefore there should be a close matching between the work schedule of the teacher in a school and the programme adopted for teacher preparation in a training college.

DEFECTS CONCERNING PAPERS

A student teacher should know the meaning of education, its objectives, the socio-cultural and politico-economics background, the principles that guide construction of curriculum etc.  But a proper preparation towards a good. Orientation is impossible in a short duration.

Following steps may be taken in this connection:

(i) Allowing more time to learners for good reading and sound build-up of the intellect and attitude,

(ii) Pruning the existing course

(iii) Arranging for exchange of experience than merely attending lectures,

(iv) Changing the mode of testing inputs

(v) The content must have direct implications in the daily school teaching.

PROBLEMS OF PRACTICE TEACHING

Inspire of all kinds of elaborate arrangements regarding practice in teaching, student teachers are non-serious to the task of teaching, deficient in sense of duty irresponsible, aimless, indifferent to children, lacking innovative measure in teaching which are great obstacles in the development of pedagogical skills.

PROBLEM OF SUPERVISION OF TEACHING

The supervisory organizations for practice teaching aims at bringing improvement in the instructional activity of the student teachers by using various techniques and practical skills in teaching and help them to develop confidence in facing the classroom situations. This is done through following types of supervisions:

Supervision Before Classroom Teaching:

It aims at guiding in planning their lessons, learning to organize contents, formulating suitable gestures and developing other related skills. At present the lesson plans are checked superficially and no discussion is made by the subject method specialist.

LACK OF SUBJECT KNOWLEDGE

The B.Ed. programme does not emphasize the knowledge of the basic subject. The whole  teaching practice remains indifferent with regard to the subject knowledge of the student  teacher.

FAULTY METHODS OF TEACHING

In India teacher educators are averse to innovation and experimentation in the use of methods of teaching. Their acquaintance with modern class-room communication devices is negligible.

ISOLATION OF TEACHER’S EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

As has been observed by education commission, the teacher education has become isolated from schools and current development in school education. The schools consider the teacher education department as an alien institution and not a nursery for the professional development of school teacher. These departments only observe the formality of finishing the prescribed number of lessons no caring for the sounders of pedagogy involved in the procedure.

POOR ACADEMIC BACKGROUND OF STUDENT-TEACHERS

Most of candidates do not have the requisite motivation and an academic background for a  well deserved entry in the teaching profession.

LACK OF PROPER FACILITIES

In India, the teacher education programme is being given a step-motherly treatment. About  20 percent of the teacher education institutions are being run in rented buildings without any facility for an experimental school or laboratory, library and other equipments necessary for a  good teacher education department. There are no separate hostel facilities for student teachers.

LACK OF REGULATIONS IN DEMAND AND SUPPLY

The State Education Department has no data on the basis of which they may work out the desired intake for their institutions. There is a considerable lag between the demand and supply of teachers. This has created the problems of unemployment and underemployment.

INADEQUATE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

In India, research in education has been considerably neglected. The research conducted is of inferior quality. The teacher education programmes are not properly studied before undertaking any research.

LACK OF FACILITIES FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Most of the programmes are being conducted in a routine and unimaginative manner. Even  the association of teacher educators has not contributed anything towards development of a sound professionalization of teacher education in the country.

Conclusion

Teacher education is a global profession that needs to be understood properly. It is essential to grasp a global perspective of the profession as it is today, to make assumptions about it in the near future and to utilize the best thinking and instructional models available in the present times. Professionally, powerful teaching is very important and increasing in our contemporary society as a result of the steam of dynamic initiatives of human development and evolution. Due to these developments and evolution, standards of learning would be higher in the 21st century than it has been in the 20th century. As a result teachers would need to acquire additional knowledge and skills, both general and specific, to be able to survive and be successful in the 21st century school environment.

REFERENCE

  1. Chobe, S.P., & Chobe, A. (2006). School Organization. Noida: Mayur Paperbex.
  2. Desai, A. J. (2012) Teacher Education in India, Journal for Research in Education, Vol.1 Issue. 1
  3. Gupta, A.M. (1999). Educational Management. Bharat Prakashan, New Delhi.
  4. Vashist, S.R. (2003). Professional Education of Teachers. Jaipur: Mangal Deep Publication.
 

STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADJUSTMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR GENDER

 

 

STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADJUSTMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR GENDER

Rajbir Kaur,
Assistant Professor,
Sri Sai College of Education,
Badhani, Pkt.

Introduction

Adjustment  : The word “adjust” is rooted in the Latin word “Justus”. Justus mean “toward the just or right. In English, meaning is different of course, but the word still carried the idea of moving into correct or proper relations with the environment. The concept of adjustment is an old as human race on earth the concept adjustment was biological and originally it was termed adaptation. Systematic emergence of this concept starts from Darwin. Adjustment is a continuous process of maintaining harmony between the attributes of individual, and the environment condition which surround him. Thus Adjustment is explained as “The process of behavior by which man and other animals maintain equilibrium between their needs and obstacles of the environment. Man has the distinctive capacity, to be aware of him-self and to understand himself. Besides, he has the unique position of living in a formal society. Both these facts are responsible for man’s adjustment in attaining degree of inner harmony and competence in interpersonal relations. In general, the adjustment process involves four parts: (1) a need or motive in the form of a strong persistent stimulus, (2) the thwarting or no fulfillment of this need, (3) varied activity, or exploratory behavior accompanied by problem solving, and (4) some response that removes or at least reduces the initiating stimulus and completes the adjustment. 

 Mental Health : Mental health is a positive concept related to the social and emotional wellbeing of individuals and communities. The concept is culturally defined, but generally relates to the enjoyment of life, ability to cope with stresses and sadness, the fulfillment of goals and potential, and a sense of connection to others. Mental health is a desirable quality in its own right and is more than the absence of mental ill‐health. It is relevant to all people, regardless of whether they are currently experiencing, or recovering from, a mental illness. Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. Mental health and well-being are fundamental to our collective and individual ability as humans to think, emote, interact with each other, earn a living and enjoy life. On this basis, the promotion, protection and restoration of mental health can be regarded as a vital concern of individuals, communities and societies throughout the world. The idea of mental health is more complex and comprehensive. A sound mind in a sound body has been recognized as a social ideal for many centuries. Health generally means sound conditions, or well-being, or freedom from diseases. An individual is said to be physically healthy when his body is functioning well and he/she is free from paints and troubles. Anand (1989) studied the mental health of high school students and concluded that the mental health of adolescents, their academic achievement, and the educational and occupational status of parents were positively related. Morris (2002) conducted a study of mental health knowledge of pre-service and in-service elementary schools teachers. Sharma (2004) found that the B.Ed. Students related to stream and gender wise do not differ significantly of six components of mental health and on overall mental health.   
Justification of the Study
Adjustment, in psychology, refers to the behavioral process by which humans and other animals maintain equilibrium among their various needs or between their needs and the obstacles of their environments. A sequence of adjustment begins when a need is felt and ends when it is satisfied.  Adjustment plays a pivotal role in the development of an individual. It is adjustment which is responsible for the organization of behaviour to life situations in every sphere.  If the relationship between the individual and his/ her environment is in accordance with the norms then the adjustment is achieved. The behaviour of the person concerned would be considered normal. Striking the balance between mental health and personal adjustment, this course uses scientific approach to examine key human processes. Besides fostering critical examination of human behaviour, it might help see things in a broader perspective. It does provide an opportunity for self-reflection and understanding. A possible range of behaviour in any given situation is repeatedly taken as examples and analyzed to understand what constitutes normality and hence shows the level of adjustment and what falls short and is interpreted as maladjustment. Mental health is the ability to make adequate adjustments to the environment on the plane of reality. It is as the ability to balance feelings, desires, ambitions and ideals in one’s daily living. It means the ability to face and accept the realities of life. Mental health is a term used describes how well the individual is adjusted to the demands and opportunities of life. Adjustment of the students in the school is very important because the mental illness in the school distinguishes the students from normal students to a greater extent than any other single factor. Hence, the environment factor is responsible to affect the mental development of the students. The young generation is the force of the country. They have to build the nation. To make and build the country the students must safeguard their mental health. For this, the research work is the prime need as the research will bring new knowledge to light, concerning with mental health of the students. So the present study was selected by the investigator.

Objectives of the Study

  1. To study the adjustment of male and female secondary school students.
  2. To study the mental health of secondary school students.
  3. To study the relationship between adjustment and mental health of secondary school students.

Hypotheses of the Study

  1. There is no significant difference in the adjustment of male and female secondary school students.
  2. There is no significant difference in the mental health of male and female secondary school students.
  3. There is no significant correlation between adjustment and mental health of secondary school students.
Method of the Study
To study the relationship between the adjustment and mental health of secondary school students , Descriptive Survey Method was used.
Sample
A sample consisting of total 100 secondary school students (50 male and 50 female) was selected randomly from  Gurdaspur district of Punjab.
Tool  Used
Following  tools were used in the present study: Adjustment Inventory by V. K. Mittal, Mental Health Inventory by Srivastav and Jagdish Rai.
Statistical Techniques  Used
In  the present study, the following statistical techniques were used: Mean, Standard deviation, t-test, Correlation
Analysis and Interpretation of Data
The analysed results of the present study are discussed and presented as under:
Hypothesis-I: ‘There is no significant difference in the adjustment of male and female secondary school    students’.

Table – I: Significance Of Difference In The Mean Scores Of Adjustment Of Male And Female Secondary School Students

Variables

Number Of   Students

Mean

S.D

‘T’

Inference

Male

50

201.2

8.31

 

1.51

 

 

Not Significant at 0.05  level

Female

50

204.5

9.64

  

Table -I shows that mean scores of adjustment of male and female secondary school students are 201.2 and 204.5 respectively. The obtained ‘t’ value (1.51) is  insignificant at 0.05 level, which shows that there exists no significant difference in the adjustment of male and female secondary school students Hence, Hypothesis- I ‘There is no significant difference in the adjustment of male and female secondary school  students’ stands accepted.

Hypothesis-II: ‘There is no significant difference in the mental health of male and female secondary school    students’.

Table – II : Significance Of Difference In The Mean Scores Of Mental Health Of Male And Female Secondary School Students

Variables

Number Of   Students

Mean

S.D

‘T’

Inference

Male

50

192.45

12.31

 

 

0.87

 

Not Significant at 0.05  level

Female

50

184.56

14.54

 

Table -II shows that mean scores of mental health of male and female secondary school students are 192.45 and 184.56 respectively. The obtained ‘t’ value (0.87) is  insignificant at 0.05 level, which shows that there exists no significant difference in the adjustment of male and female secondary school students. Hence, Hypothesis- I ‘There is no significant difference in the mental health of male and female secondary school  students’ stands accepted.

Hypothesis-III: ‘There is no significant correlation between adjustment and mental health of secondary school students’. 

Table – III : Coefficient Of Correlation Between Adjustment And Mental Health Of Secondary School Students

Variables

Number of   students

Mean

S.D

‘r’

Inference

Adjustment

100

106.43

18.11

 

2.86

 

Significant at 0.05 level

Mental Health

100

104.02

20.34

Table -III Shows That Mean Scores Of Adjustment And Mental Health Of Secondary School Students Are 106.43 And 104.02 Respectively. The Obtained ‘R’ Value (2.86) Is Significant At 0.05 Level, Which Shows That There Exists A Significant Positive Relationship Between The Adjustment And Mental Health Of Secondary School Students. Hence, Hypothesis- III ‘There Is No Significant Correlation Between Adjustment And Mental Health Of Secondary School Students’ Stands Rejected.
Main Findings
  1. There Is No Significant Difference In The Adjustment Of Male And Female Secondary School Students.
  1. There Is No Significant Difference In The Mental Health Of Male And Female Secondary School Students.
  1. There Is A Significant Positive Correlation Between Adjustment And Mental Health Of Secondary School Students.
Educational Implications
Adjustment Is A Learning Process And An Able Teacher Would Bring About Adjustment In A Positive Way, Which Strengthens The Personality Of A Child. A Well - Adjusted Child Enjoys His School Environment In A Positive Manner And Not By Twisting His Personality In An Unhealthy Way. But When We Are Unable To Provide Situations In The School, Which Can Enable The Students To Satisfy Their Needs, Students Will React Differently And Adjustment Problems Arises And Definitely It Will Affect Their Mental Health. In The Present Study It Has Been Found That There Is A Positive Correlation Between The Adjustment And Mental Health Of The Students. Both Have An Effect On Each Other. So The Results Of The Present Study Will Help The Teachers In Such A Way That They Could Provide Better Environment To The Students. To Make The Students Mentally Healthy, Various Orientation Programmes About Ethics Should Be Organized.  In The Schools, There Should Be Guidance And Counseling Bureau Service For The Mental Health. The Schools Should Conduct Seminars And Conferences Regarding The Problems Of The Students. In The Family The Parents Should Provide Congenial Environment For The Better Mental Health Of The Students.
References
Anand, S.P. (1989). Mental Health Of High School Students. Indian Educational Review, 24 (2),14-24 (963).
Caplan, G. (1964). Principles Of Preventative Psychiatry. Basic Books: New York.
Garrett, H.E. (1961). Statistics In Psychology And Education. Bombay : Allied Pacific.
Gates (1950). Educational  Psychology. New York :Millan Company.
Gaur, A. ( 2013). A Comparative Study Of Adjustment Problems Of High And Low Achivers In Higher Secondary School Of Gwalior City (M.P). Asian Journal Of Multidisciplinary Studies, 1(4), 68-74.
Koul, L. (2006). Methodology   Of   Educational Research. New Dehli: Vikas Publication.
Lal, K.(2001) Impact Of Family Relationship Of B.Ed. Students On Their Adjustment.  American International Journal Of Research In Humanities, Arts And Social Sciences,2(4),54-58.
Lapsley, D. K., & Edgerton, J. (2002). Separation-Individuation, Adult Attachment Style, And College Adjustment. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 80(4), 484-492.
Midha, P.(2013). Relationship Between Adjustment And Mental Health Of B.Ed. Students. Researchers Tandem, 4(16), 34-38.
Morris, F.E. (2002). A Study Of Mental Health Knowledge Of Pre-Service And In-Service Elementary School Teachers. Dissertation Abstract International.
Pritchard, M. E. Wilson, G. S. & Yamnitz, B. (2007). What Predicts Adjustment Among College Students? A Longitudinal Panel Study. Journal Of American College Health, 56(1), 15-22.
Sharma, R. D. (1995). Influence Of Recent Life Experience Of Mental Health Of School Teachers. Indian Educational Abstract, 4(2) , 15-18 .
Tudor, K. (1996). Mental Health Promotion: Paradigms And Practice. London: Routledge.

 

 

‘Mirrors and Lenses’: Concept and Conceptual Change in Indian Science Classroom

‘Mirrors and Lenses’: Concept and Conceptual Change in Indian Science Classroom

Rakesh Kumar

Assistant Professor

MV COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,

University of Delhi.

Abstract

The present work aims to study the science learning context while the topic/area of explorations was ‘MIRRORS AND LENSES’. The study reveals that 84% of learners wanted to know something more on the topic; 66 % learners looked for other resources of learning; most of them wanted to know about difference between concave and convex mirror; most of them also shared what they learn with their siblings and parents; most learners talked to their friends and they acted as a resource for them. Many of the possible sites of formation of alternative frameworks have been identified in the study. For example - Concave and convex shapes written conversely; Lenses were written as mirrors;/ Point of incidence of light ray is different from point of reflection in plane mirror. Eye lens in eye exists at complete frontal part of eye; Light coming from bulb is manmade light. The type of diagrams cited in the study can be considered by the teacher to be starting point of their explorations of the learners’ Alternative Frameworks.

Key Words: Teaching-Learning contexts, Mirrors and Lenses, Alternative Frameworks, network of conceptions, learners’ questions, and learners’ diagrams

Introduction

The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly”

(Ausubel, 1968)

(Worth, 1999) in ‘The Power of Children’s Thinking’ thinks of children as natural scientists and posits that, “They do what scientists do, but perhaps for some slightly different and less conscious reasons. They are anxious to understand the world just as adults are or one can say even better than them. There is a terribly interesting, but rather confusing, world full of stimuli all around them. Many adults, however, have learned to ignore some of that world rather than investigate it. Young children ignore very little” (Worth, 1999). The curiosity of children is many times evident in the questions that they ask. Since children are more curious and receptive than usual adults. Instead of idealised world of scientific theories, they weave. The web of their understanding from the exploration of messy world around them and this is with what a child enters the school.

“Moreover when children start school and throughout their school years, they already have pre-formed ideas about how the natural world works. These ideas may come from within the instructional setting or from their experiences outside of school. Research has shown that teaching is unlikely to be effective unless teachers and curriculum materials take into account learners’ preconceptions” (Driver, Squires, Rushworth, & Wood-Robinson, 1994).

“Some call these early ideas that children form as Alternative Frameworks; others label them naive conceptions, or alternative conceptions. Alternative Frameworks might also be referred to as preconceived notions, non-scientific beliefs, naive theories, mixed conceptions, or conceptual misunderstandings. Basically, in science these are cases in which something a person knows and believes does not match what is known to be scientifically correct. These terms identifying similar mismatches are used interchangeably in this study and are referred to as Alternative Frameworks” (Worth, 1999).

(Hancock, 1940) defined a "misconception" as "...any unfounded belief that does not embody the element of fear, good luck, faith, or supernatural intervention" (p. 208).(Barrass, 1984) wrote of “‘mistakes’ or errors, ‘misconceptions’ or misleading ideas, and misunderstandings" or misinterpretations of facts, saying that teachers and brighter learners can correct errors. But what attention is paid to misconceptions and misunderstandings that are perpetuated by teachers and textbook researchers?”

The term preconception has a connotation of pre-instructional conception developed by the science learner. “Teachers and researchers generally refer to pre instructional knowledge as preconceptions. Before beginning instruction on any new topic, teachers need to know their learners’ preconceptions because learning, and therefore instruction itself, varies depending on whether learners’ preconceptions agree with the concepts being taught or contradict those concepts” (Lucariello, 2012). “The term alternative conception is used to mean learners’ ideas, manifested after exposure to formal models or theories, which are still at odds with those currently accepted by the scientific community” (Boo, 1998). “When an alternative conception is used with consistency over more than one context or event, it is referred to as an alternative framework” (Boo, 1998). However, "Alternative Framework is a term from constructivist framework but cannot be restricted to its boundaries and should be applied in more different meanings" (Kumar, 2011).

Need of Study:

There are numerous challenges in science learning at current period. These involve utilizing prior knowledge and deep-rooted individual experiences of the learners in the classroom, crafting purposeful science learning experiences for them, providing effective models to the learners to shape their science concepts on, involving the learner in interesting, inspiring, and significant ways, imbibing our knowledge of nature of science in teaching practices etc. Large classrooms and learning design limitations influence a teacher not to provide individualized attention to the learner (Kumar, 2012).

Alternative Frameworks have many serious concerns attached with their presence and something especially concerning about them is that we, at all stages of our development, continue to build further knowledge on our current understandings. This development of learning would be seriously impacted if there are Alternative Frameworks at their core (Black, 2006). [...] 22 of the 25 Harvard University faculty and graduating learners they interviewed -- including some with science majors -- had reverted to their childhood notions of the universe”.

“Learners’ conceptions change progressively as they are exposed to additional relevant information in higher grades” (Lee, 2007).  “Specifically, the major concerns involve identifying (a) potential underlying beliefs that may influence the construction of concepts, (b) cognitive processes that contribute to the construction of concepts and meaning, (c) variables that affect conceptual development, and (d) variables that may influence the construction of meaning” (Bloom, 1990).

The following effort is directed to the issue of identification of possible sites of Alternative Frameworks and explorations of the teaching  learning  contexts  in which these have been explored has been drawn from the reflections and analysis of the teachers teaching them.

When asked ‘What causes the phases of the moon? Why does season change?’ Learners do come up with some answers, even though they have not had any such discussions with elders, says  (Weiler, 1998). Karen Worth further argues that “a child is not going to give up his theory made by so much effort and observations just because an adult disapproves it or a single event challenges it. Children do not want to give up the concepts and theories they work so hard to make. They take their experiences and struggle to come up with understandings that work in their daily lives. They are not about to drop their ideas just because someone says so, or because an event disproves what they have come to believe. As anyone familiar with the history of science can attest, even adults have trouble changing theories that are well grounded in experience. If a child's theory works, if it has been productive and the child has worked hard to build that theory, he/she will not give it up unless he/she has a lot of new experiences that provide reasons to do so” (Worth, 1999).

Different researches show that Alternative Frameworks are formed in both formal and informal settings that are difficult to understand in discontinuity from each other. This generates the need to understand science learning contexts in an integrated form from multiple dimensions.

The nature of the study was such that it was not possible for the researcher to control the variables in the process of formation and addressing Alternative Frameworks among learners in science. Thus, in the absence of controlled variables no hypothesis has been formulated. This also helped the researcher in keeping a distance from his own preconceived notions about different dimensions of the study.

 

Research Methodology

Research Questions and Objective

The following questions are focussed:

  • How do science learners perceive their natural classroom environment while a topic MIRRORS AND LENSES is being undertaken?
  • What are the possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks when the topic MIRRORS AND LENSES is taken up in the classroom?
  • What questions come to learners’ mind when the topic MIRRORS AND LENSES is taken up in the classroom?

The study has focused on the following objectives:

  • Exploring teaching learning contexts in science classrooms, with special reference to topic MIRRORS AND LENSES being undertaken.
  • Identifying possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks when the topic MIRRORS AND LENSES is taken up in the classroom (if any).
  • Identifying the questions that come to learners’ mind when the topic MIRRORS AND LENSES is taken up in the classroom.

Methodology, sample and tools:

Methodology:

The researcher came to the understanding that there might be many more possibilities of formation of Alternative Frameworks in the life experiences of science learners that might need deep probing. For this, the science learning experiences were explored to locate potential sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks. Based on understanding developed from the review of related literature and researcher’s own experience as science teacher/teacher educator, a comprehensive tool was developed by the researcher. This tool related to different issues related to different areas of the teaching-learning processes in science.

These 38 Pre-Service science teachers who are the B.Ed. students of the two of Education in Delhi, India) were chosen as convenient samples for the study. Most of the observations, interpretations, analysis and reflections done by the participants were discussed with them also to develop their insight about their own science classrooms. These 38 prospective science teachers of the two colleges (MV College of Education and GRD College of Education in Delhi) who were chosen as samples for the study have henceforth been addressed as science teachers. These science teachers were also a connection to reach to the science learners in the schools. Thus an input from the science classrooms was available to the teachers during their school life experience program. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program.

A tool described in later part of the study tool was used on these 38 pre-service teachers. But the data from 30 pre-service science teachers was collected in the form of self-assessment feedback regarding 592 Science lessons transacted by them during their school life experience program. 8 Pre-service teachers became non-responding. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program as described later. Training of teachers was done for both data collection (one day) and analysis (three days). In addition, two days were devoted for reflection and discussion on resolution of the problems faced during the process.

Sample

Total 38 Pre-Service Science teachers participated from two B.Ed. colleges of University of Delhi and GGSIP University, Delhi. This “ensured participation of total 18 schools in which above Pre-Service teachers had their School Life Experience Program. These teachers had diverse graduation and post-graduation subjects.

 

Out of total 38 Pre-Service teachers, code numbers 1.01 to code number 1.30 were given to 30 Pre-service teachers from Guru Ram Dass College of Education and 8 Pre-Service teachers from Maharishi Valmiki College of Education received code numbers 2.01 to code number 2.08. Clearly, the sample is not a random sample but a purposive one. Although no deliberate attempt was made for the sample to be homogeneous or representative, it got addressed in the process to some extent. The science teachers belonged to different socio-economic backgrounds. The science learners’ belonged to different sorts of school settings. These types of schools included all boys’ school, all girls’ schools, government, government aided and public schools. Therefore, we can say that different socio-economic backgrounds and diversity in teaching-learning settings has been represented largely in the sample.

Tools for data collection

In the review of the available tools, it was identified that these tools cannot be used in order to collect required data for the present study or in other words, suitable tools for getting the relevant data could not be located. Thus, in order to explore teaching learning contexts in science classrooms with respect to possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks among learners in science, a tool was thus developed in the form of a questionnaire. The major themes of the questionnaire include exploration about the resources that the learners tend to tap, their preferred learning styles, possible sites of Alternative Frameworks, their notion about themselves as science learners etc.

To validate the tools, the First draft of tools was given to experts namely school teachers, and colleagues in teacher education institutions, and ambiguous language and other issues resolved and the items modified subsequently.

In the questionnaire filled by the science learners in different schools in Delhi, the question number six was ‘Mention the question you asked/wanted to ask’. In order to analyse these questions, the researcher categorized the questions in the response to this question in terms of the topics/areas they represent. Originally 449 questions were received from the science learners.  After removing repetitions, 17 areas finally emerged out of these questions as categories. In the questionnaire filled by the science learners in different schools in Delhi, the question number thirteen was ‘What figures, diagrams and scientific terms did you use? Please draw/write it.’ On this question total 908 diagrams and figures were received and were grouped according to the concept represented in them. In each of the groups the analysis follows regarding the concepts depicted and possible sites of alternative framework. In the study, the questions asked by them were also explored. This part along with the preceding one constitutes the breeding ground of Alternative Frameworks amongst learners in science that will need deep probing to start the journey of addressing them. Also it is to be noted that this approach can guide the science teachers to assist learners in moving towards scientific conceptions that are at the heart of science learning by identifying the point of start. The analysis of figures and diagrams made and terms used by science learners was analysed to identify following sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks that will further deep probing for understanding of their context.

Collection of data:

The questionnaire prepared by the researcher and vetted by two eminent scholars was used for the collection of data. This questionnaire was distributed to more than 1207 learners of science ( as described in the Figure 3) studying in classes sixth to tenth across Delhi and received from total 979 learners. These schools catered to the needs of a diverse population. Some particular topics were under focus in various schools (due to the schedules fixed by the educational structure) at the time when data from school was collected. Thus, some topics got more coverage in the study than the others as the topics under discussion were not in researcher’s control.

 The questionnaire for science learners containing total 17 items was given after transaction of 12 to 15 lesson plans and collected on the same day itself by the science teachers. The primary task of analysing and reflecting on these questionnaires filled up by the science learners was given to the science teachers so that they are able to make linkages with their own classrooms in their particular contexts, which is not possible for the researcher to make. Science teachers were given about 10 days for this task. This analysis and reflection was summarized by the researcher and analysed to see patterns, exceptions and other aspects. Two of those 17 questions from the questionnaires filled up by the science learners were analysed by the researcher. These two questions were related to ‘questions that are coming to the mind of the science learner’ and second the ‘figures, diagrams and scientific terms used’ by the science learner. While the former was analysed to understand the nature of questions that are coming to the science learners mind, the latter was analysed to identify the concepts depicted and the possible sites of Alternative Frameworks (if any).

Analysis of Data

Questions from the questionnaires filled up by the science learners were analysed in two ways.

(a)      The first and the primary analysis was done by their own science teachers, that are discussed in part

(b)      Two questions i.e. question number six and number 13 were analysed by the researcher only. Question number six was related to the questions that come to the students’ mind while the teacher was transacting a particular lesson on a topic from their curriculum and question numbered 13 was related to the figures and diagrams made and terms used by the science learners. The study includes only the analysis from these two questions.

In order to analyse these questions, the researcher categorized the responses to question no. 6 of the questionnaire in terms of conceptual areas. Originally 449 questions were received from the science learners. After identifying repetitions, 17 broad conceptual areas of questions finally emerged. These questions along with the topic have been reported in the study. On the response to Question number 13 a total of 908 diagrams and figures were received and were grouped according to the concept represented in them. These were analysed with two major focuses namely the concepts and the keywords representing the possible sites of Alternative Frameworks. These two have been reported along with the original diagrams and figures drawn by the science learners in the study. In order to meet the ethical standards, the names and identifiable information of the science learner has not deliberately been put on the figures and diagrams. But the questionnaire responses filled up by every learner was coded so that the linkage with the sheet can be made without having to identify the personal information of the science learner and is imprinted on every diagram and figure.

The type of questions posed by the learners are questions from activity done in the class, conceptual queries, dilemmas, from their own observations around them, basic questions that are definitional in nature, queries that require reasoning and arguments, exploratory questions requiring experimenting, questions projecting Alternative Framework sites etc. Table 1 shows the details of the teacher and the leaner along with the topic/area that emerged from the natural settings as described above.

Summary of teacher's analysis and reflection:

84% of learners wanted to know something more on the topic ; 66 % learners looked for other resources of learning; most of them wanted to know about difference between concave and convex mirror; most of them also shared what they learn with their siblings and parents; most learners talked to their friends and they acted as a resource for them.


Analysis of questions asked:

Questions asked related to the topic/area ‘Mirror and Lenses’

Possible sites of Alternative Frameworks from analysis of figures and diagrams made by science learners:

Mirrors and lenses:

  1. I.         Concave and convex shapes written conversely.(Diagram-1.1.2)

 

  1. II.         Lenses were written as mirrors. (Diagram-1.1.10)

 

 

  1. III.         Point of incidence of light ray is different from point of reflection in plane mirror.

 

  1. Eye lens in eye exists at complete frontal part of eye.(Diagram- 1.19.12)

 

  1. Light coming from bulb is manmade light. (Diagram-1.19.16)

Conclusions:

While addressing these Alternative Frameworks the learning contexts play an important role. For example what questions were there in their mind, what are the learning style preferences? The study reveals that during or after the teaching learning processes related to the topic MIRRORS AND LENSES following represents the learners’ framework - 84% of learners wanted to know something more on the topic; 66 % learners looked for other resources of learning; most of them wanted to know about difference between concave and convex mirror; most of them also shared what they learn with their siblings and parents; most learners talked to their friends and they acted as a resource for them/. Many of the possible sites of formation of alternative frameworks have been identified in the study. For example - Concave and convex shapes written conversely; Lenses were written as mirrors; / Point of incidence of light ray is different from point of reflection in plane mirror. Eye lens in eye exists at complete frontal part of eye; Light coming from bulb is manmade light.

 

References

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  • Boo, H. K. (1998). Students’ understandings of chemical bonds and the energetics of chemical reactions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(5), 569–581.
  • Hancock, C. H. (1940). An evaluation of certain popular science misconceptions. Science Education, 24, 208–213.
  • Kumar, R. (2011). Development of Alternative Frameworks Among Learners in Science: A Reflection on the Learning Theories and Models. Journal of Teacher Education in Developing Nations, 2(2), 55–61.
  • Kumar, R. (2012). Efficacy of CAL in Addressing Alternative Frameworks Amongst Learners in Science: An Exploration. In NAAC sponsored National Seminar on Quality Assurance of Teacher Education: Initiatives and Mechanisms. Department of Education, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh, Uttrakhand.
  • Lee, M. (2007). High School Students’ Alternative Ideas about Chemical Bonding. Dr. Foley. SED 690.
  • Lucariello, J. (2012). How Do My Students Think: Diagnosing Student Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/education/k12/student-thinking.aspx
  • Weiler, B. (1998). Children’s misconceptions about science. Operation Physics. American Institute of Physics. Http://amasci. Com/miscon/opphys. Html (accessed March 26, 2007).
  • Worth, K. (1999). The Power of Children’s Thinking (2nd ed.). Washington DC: National Science Foundation.

 

 

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