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A Study of Work Motivation of School Teachers in Relation to Caste, Age and Locale

A Study of Work Motivation of School Teachers in Relation to Caste, Age and Locale

Dr.Sunita Goel, Assistant Professor

G.G.S.College of Education,Giddarbaha.

Distt.Sri Muktsar Sahib. (Punjab).

Abstract

In the present study, the investigator intended to compare the work motivation of school teachers with respect to some demographic variables. . The independent variables comprised of caste, age and locale. For the purpose of investigation, descriptive survey method was used. The sample comprised of 400 school teachers working in schools located in Bathinda district  affiliated to Punjab school education board and was selected by random sampling technique. Employees Motivation Schedule (EMS) by Srivastava (1988) was used for the collection of data. The obtained data was analyzed using means, S.D’s and t-test. The findings of the study revealed: i) No significant difference was found in the  work motivation of SC and General category school teachers ii)There was significant difference found in work motivation among teachers working in rural and  urban schools; iii) Significant difference was also found in the work motivation of teachers below the age of  35 years and above 35 years.

Key Words: Work Motivation, Caste, Locale, Age. 

Introduction

Motivation is important factor which affects the performance of all types of employees. It is  psychological process and refers to the force within the person that affects direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behavior . According to Olajide (2000), "it is goal-directed, and therefore cannot be outside the goals of any organization whether public, private or non-profit".  Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behavior and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. One way of stimulating people is to employ effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. Rather than money there are other incentives which can also serve as motivators.

Work motivation is a process to energize employee to the work goal through a specific path. This is not an object rather method or technique or art. Developing inner urge to put effort on successful performance. Vanbaren (2010) opined that work motivation is a process used to encourage and inspire workers to perform their jobs thoroughly and well. Every employer wishes to hire positively motivated people who want to work and will continue to try hard throughout the total period of employment. The schools need highly motivated teachers so as to achieve their goals and made good citizens. It is one of the several factors that go into a teacher's performance. It includes the factors that cause, channel and sustain the behaviour of teachers in a particular committed direction. Several commissions and committees who examined the functioning of educational set-up in the country have expressed concern about the work motivation of teachers towards an overall improvement of the education system. According to Education Commission (1964-66) “The destiny of India is being shaped in her classrooms” and that ‘as is the teacher, so is the nation’ to emphasize about the importance of the teachers. The National Policy of Education (1986) recognized the crucial role of teachers and stated that the status of teacher reflects the socio-cultural ethos of a society. It further expressed that no people can rise above the level of its teachers and the government and the community should endeavor to create conditions which will help to motivate and inspire teachers on constructive and creative work. Several factors stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually  interested and committed to a jobrole or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. The researchers revealed that motivation among teachers is in short supply and in need of periodic replenishment. Thus, if it is known that what drives the teacher, it will help in understanding their work behaviour. So motivation acts as a powerful instrument in educational institutions which may lead to increased effectiveness of teachers. Kumar et. al (2008) reported significant differences in work motivation based on the demographic variables such as age, gender, teaching experience in the present organization, marital status and monthly income. Dombrovskis et .al (2011) concluded that the motives of work satisfaction and social status were found to occupy the lowest position in the work motivation structure.  Thus, it is assumed that the present study will provide a new information in describing work motivation of  school teachers.

Variables

In the present study work motivation has been taken as the dependent variables, whereas demographic variables such as caste, age and locale constituted the independent variables.

Objective of the Study

To compare the work motivation of school teachers with respect to caste, age and locale.

Hypotheses of the Study

 

1- There exists no significant difference in the work motivation of sc and general category teachers.

2- There exists no significant difference in the work motivation of teachers working in rural and urban schools.

3- There exists no significant difference in the work motivation of teachers below the age of 35 and above 35 years.

Design and Methodology

This study used a descriptive survey design. The purpose of descriptive surveys, according to Ezeani (1998), is to collect detailed and factual information that describes an existing phenomenon. Comparison was made to study work motivation of the school teachers in relation to their demographic variables such as caste, age and locale.

Delimitations of the Study

Due to paucity of time and resources the investigator has penned to delimit the present study to:

  1. This study is delimited to 400 school teachers working in government schools affiliated to Punjab school education board.
  2. This study is delimited to 200 scheduled caste and 200 general category teachers.
  3. This study is confined to secondary school teachers of Bathinda District.

 

Sample

A sample of 400 secondary school teachers working in schools affiliated to CBSE located in Bathinda district was drawn using random sampling technique.

Tool Used

Employees Motivation Schedule by Srivastava (1988) to measure the work motivation of teachers.

Statistical Techniques Used

Means, SD’s and t-test were used to compare work motivation of the school teachers with respect to their demographic variables.

Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Table -1

Difference among work motivation of SC and general category school teachers  

N

Category

Mean

SD

t-ratio

200

Scheduled Caste

223.62

21.7.2

 

5.40**

 

200

General

211.10

28.84

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence. **Significant at 0.01 level of confidence. 

From the table1 it was found that the Scheduled caste teachers had higher work motivation (223.62) than general category school teachers (211.10).  The ‘t’-value 5.40  is significant at 0.01 level. Thus, the hypothesis1“ There exists no significant difference in the work motivation of SC teachers  and general category  school teachers ” is rejected.

Table -2 

Difference among work motivation of Rural and Urban school teachers  

N

Locale

Mean

SD

t-ratio

200

Rural

217.02

25.2

 

1.36 NS

 

200

Urban

220.10

26.84

NS-Not Significant

From the table 2, it is found that the mean scores of rural teachers is 217.02 and urban  teachers is 211.10 with respect to their work motivation. The standard deviation of the rural teachers is 25.2 and urban teachers is 26.84. It is also found that t-ratio is 1.36 which is not significant at both 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence. Thus, the hypothesis 2“ There exists no significant difference in the work motivation of rural  and urban  school teachers ” stands accepted.

 

 

 

Table -3

Difference among work motivation of teachers below and above the age of 35 years.

N

Age

Mean

SD

t-ratio

200

Below 35

Years

224.90

23.01

 

6.10**

 

200

Above 35

years

210.01

 

27.02

 

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence. **Significant at 0.01 level of confidence

A close perusal of Table 3 indicates that the teachers above  and below 35 years differ significantly from each other with respect to their work motivation. Further the comparison of the mean scores reveals that the teachers below 35 years possess significantly higher work motivation (224.90) than the teachers above 35 years (210.01). The ‘t’-value 6.10 is significant at 0.01 level. Thus, the hypothesis 3 “There exists no significant difference in the work motivation of the teachers above and below 35 years” stands rejected.   

Findings of the Study

  • ·A significant difference was observed in the work motivation of scheduled caste and general category school teachers
  • · No significant difference was found in the mean scores of work motivation of rural and urban school teachers.
  • · The study revealed that the teachers below 35 years possess significantly higher work motivation than the teachers above 35 years.

Educational Implications

The teachers need to be empowered by giving powers.  It enhances work motivation positively;

The teachers also require different motivational strategies for instance. Therefore, it is very necessary to identify teachers’ drives and needs and to channelize their behaviour to motivate them towards task performance. As the generation of teachers enters the workplace and as globalisation creates more diverse workforce, schools need to rethink their motivational practices. Though monetary benefits play a crucial role in motivating the teachers but it has also been discovered that one of the best ways to motivate the teachers is good old-fashioned praise and recognition. Thus, the findings of the present study provide enormous scope for the improvement of teachers’ work motivation through well-structured sensitization; attitude building and competency based training programs.

References

Luthans, F. (1998). Organisational Behaviour. 8th ed. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Dombrovskis, V. , Guseva, S., & Murasovs, V. (2011). Motivation to work and the syndrome of professional burnout among teachers in Latvia, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 98-106.

 

Government of India, Ministry of Education. Education and National Development, Report of the Education Commission (1964-66). New Delhi.

 

Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development. National Policy on Education (1986). New Delhi.

 

]Kumar, M. S., Udayasuriyan, G., & Vimala, B. (2008). Motivation among the employees of a public sectorconcern, Journal of Community Guidance and Research, 25 (3), 340-351.

 

Lindholm, J. A. (1997). Secondary school physical education teacher motivation: An application of personal investment theory, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 16(4), 426-439.

 

Olajide, A. (2000). Getting the best out of the employees in a developing economy. A Personnel Psychology Guest Lecture Series. Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

 

Srivastava, A. K. (1988). Employees Motivation Schedule. Agra: National Psychological Corporation.

 

Vanbaren, J. (2010), The Definition for work motivation. [Online] Available:

 

 

STUDY OF STUDY HABITS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR STREAM

STUDY OF STUDY HABITS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR STREAM

Rajbir Kaur,
Assistant Professor,
Sri Sai College of Education,
Badhani, Pkt.

Introduction
Education has become the right of every child. Learning style differs from person to person.  It is important that the students should become independent learners, which help them to apply learnt skills as well as to prepare themselves for the examinations.   Students need to have appropriate independent study habits. Good study habits lead to good academic record and bad study-habits lead to poor academic record as there is direct relationship between study habits and academic achievement. Study habits are defined as those techniques, such as summarizing, note taking, outlining or locating material which learners employ to assist themselves in the efficient learning of the material at hand. Study Habits are the regular tendencies and practices that one depicts during the process of gaining information through learning. In simple terms study habits are the habits when one study. A person with poor study habits will not be able to learn properly.
Good(1998) defines the term study habits as, “ The student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc”. Azikiwe ( 1998) describes the study habit as “ The adopted way and manner, a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain the mastery of the subject”. According to her, “good study habits are good assets to learners because they (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”.
Nuthane & Yenage (2009) has examined the causes of poor academic performance among university undergraduates. Some of these factors identified are intellectual ability, poor study habits, achievement motivation, lack of vocational goals, self concept, low socio- economic status of the family, poor family structure and so on. Kumar and Sohi (2013) concluded that the sex of students is not likely to have any major effect on study habits and academic achievement of tenth grade students. It is also found that there is very high and positive relationship between study habits and academic achievement of tenth grade students.
Rationale of the Study
The world is becoming more and more competitive and in the age of competition, every human being is doing struggle for the better survival. Quality of performance has become the key factor for personal progress. Study habits play a very important role in the life of students. Success or failure of each student depends upon his own study habits. Study habits reveal students personality. Learner’s learning character is characterized by his study habits. Study habits serve as the vehicle of learning. All the students may not be highly intelligent in their studies but they can be helped out by providing such opportunities which can develop good study habits. So proper guidance is must by the teachers as well as by the parents to the students to develop good study habits. Hence, the present study was selected by the researcher.
Objectives of the Study
  1. To study the difference in the study habits of arts and science senior secondary school students.
  1. To study the difference in the study habits of arts and commerce senior secondary school students.
  1. To study the difference in the study habits of commerce and science senior secondary school students.
Hypotheses of the Study
1. There is no significant difference in the study habits of arts and science senior secondary school students.
2. There is no significant difference in the study habits of arts and commerce senior secondary school students.
3. There is no significant difference in the study habits of commerce and science senior secondary school students.
Method of the Study
To study the study habits of senior secondary school students in relation to their stream, Descriptive Survey Method was used.
 
Sample
A sample consisting of total 150 senior secondary school students (50 from arts stream, 50 from science and 50 from commerce stream) was selected randomly from  Kangra  district of Himachal Pardesh.
 
Tool Used
Following tool was used for the present study:
  • Study Habits Inventory constructed by Dr. B.V. Patel (1975).
Statistical Techniques Used
In the present study, the following statistical techniques were used:
  • Mean
  • Standard deviation
  • t-test
 
Analysis and Interpretation of Data
The analysed results of the present study are discussed and presented as under:
HYPOTHESIS-I
There is no significant difference in the study habits of arts and science senior secondary school students.

Table – I

Showing Significance Of Difference In The Mean Scores Of Study Habits Of Arts And Science Senior Secondary School Students

Variables

Number of   students

Mean

S.D

‘t’

Inference

Arts

50

81.01

8.21

 

 

2.54

 

Significant at 0.05  level

Science

50

85.54

10.43

Table -I reveals that mean scores of study habits of arts and science senior secondary school students are 81.01 and 85.54 respectively. The obtained‘t’ value (2.54) is significant at 0.05 level, which shows that there exists a significant difference in the study habits of arts and science senior secondary school students.

Hence, Hypothesis- I ‘There is no significant difference in the study habits of arts and science senior secondary school students’ stands rejected.

HYPOTHESIS-II : There is no significant difference in the study habits of arts and commerce senior secondary school students. 

 

Table – II

Showing Significance Of Difference In The Mean Scores Of Study Habits Of Arts And Commerce Senior Secondary School Students

Variables

Number of   students

Mean

S.D

‘t’

Inference

Arts

50

81.01

8.21

 

 

2.32

 

 

Significant at 0.05  level

Commerce

 

50

 

86.22

 

13.14

Table -II reveals that mean scores of study habits of arts and commerce senior secondary school students are 81.01 and 86.22 respectively. The obtained‘t’ value (2.32) is significant at 0.05 level, which shows that there exists a significant difference in the study habits of arts and commerce senior secondary school students.

Hence, Hypothesis- II ‘There is no significant difference in the study habits of arts and commerce senior secondary school students’ stands rejected.

HYPOTHESIS-III : There is no significant difference in the study habits of commerce and science senior secondary school students. 

Table – III

Showing Significance Of Difference In The Mean Scores Of Study Habits Of Commerce And Science Senior Secondary School Students

Variables

Number of   students

Mean

S.D

‘t’

Inference

Commerce

50

86.22

13.14

 

 

1.78

 

 

Not Significant at 0.05  level

Science

 

50

 

85.54

 

10.43

Table -III reveals that mean scores of study habits of commerce and science senior secondary school students are 86.22 and 85.54 respectively. The obtained‘t’ value (1.78) is significant at 0.05 level, which shows that there exists no significant difference in the study habits of  commerce and science senior secondary school students.
Hence, Hypothesis- III ‘There is no significant difference in the study habits of commerce and science senior secondary school students’ stands accepted.
 
Main Findings
  1. 1. There exists a significant difference in the study habits of arts and science senior secondary school students.
  2. 2. There exists a significant difference in the study habits of arts and commerce senior secondary school students.
  3. 3. There exists no significant difference in the study habits of commerce and science senior secondary school students.
Educational Implications
The results of the present study showed a significant difference in the study habits of arts and science and arts and commerce senior secondary school students. The results will be beneficial for the teachers, parents and for the govt. also. As the study revealed that the students from arts stream have less satisfactory study habits as compared to other streams, teacher plays a significant role here in drawing the best potentialities from the student to nourish a good study habit. Again, the exploration of knowledge claims the regular study of books in different, so the students should be motivated for extra reading. State government has already shown some concern over this in recent times by introducing low costs books for both primary and secondary schools. A childs’ earliest education is received in a family and basic ideas are initiated which determine his/her later all round development in school and outside home. The role of parents in the development of child is very vital and influence the childs’ growth and behaviour. In general, parents are more influential to discipline the child in behaviour, study habits, attitude and guides towards a career.
References
Chand, S. (2013). Study habits of secondary school students in relation to type of school and type of
Family. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 2 (7), 90‐96.
Good, C.V. (1973). Dictionary of Education (3rd Ed.), New York:  McGraw Hill Book Company.
Garret, H.E.(2004). Statistics  in Psychology and Education. New Delhi: Paragon International Publishers.
Kumar, S. and Sohi, A. (2013). Study Habits of Tenth Grade Students in Relation to Their
Academic Achievements. Indian Journal of Research,  2,(12), 58‐60.
Koul, L. (2006). Methodology   of  Educational Research. New Dehli: Vikas publication.
Mittal, P. (2009). Study habit of visually impaired students in relation to their academic achievement. Unpublished M.Ed. dissertation, K.U., Kurukshetra.
Norton, D.F.(1959). The Relationship of Study Habits and other Measure of Achievements of IX Grade general Sciences. Journal of Experiments in Education, 27, 211-217.
Nuthana. P.G.,& Yenagi, G.V.(2009). Influence of study habits, self concept on achievement of boys and girls. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22 ,51135-1138.
Rawat, L. (1995). A study of the effect of parental Absence on Adjustment, Study Habits and Academic Development of Students of High School Classes. Ph.D. Thesis, Hemawati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University.
Rajendran, S., Raji, A., Sumathi, P., Rosaly, A. and Sahayaraj, W. (2009). Are Study Habits Gender Biased? Edutracks, 8(9),41‐44.
Stella, S. and Purushothaman, S. (1993). Study habits of under achievers. Journal of Educational Research, 29(4),206-214.
Verma, B.P. (1996). Study habits, Locus of control and academic performance. Indian Journal of Psychometry and Education, 27 (1), 1-6.
Verma, S. and Kumar, R. (1999). A correlation study between study habits and achievements in different school courses. Indian Journal of Psychometry and Education, 30 (1), 53-56.

 

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