ISSN-2231 0495


Diagnosing Learning Difficulties in Mathematics of Class VI Student

Diagnosing Learning Difficulties in Mathematics of Class VI Student

Dr. Rajnish Pandey
Reader, I/CHOD, Department of Education
Modern Institute of Education
Dhalwala, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand


Mathematics is treated as a tough subject by the teachers as well as the learners. Though mathematics learning is important for all practical purposes but rarely the student give option for it. "They try to escape from the study of mathematics. It seems either they feel it hard to adjust with the amount of labor it requires on learning or they may find themselves weak to understand." (Pandey. 2003)

These problems have already disillusioned the students who studs mathematics. This is a great problem to the teachers and the guardians. It needs to be tackled on priority basis. However, now there is no option for the students but to study mathematics right from class I onward up to school level compulsorily.

The responsible causes for creating deficiencies and difficulties in learning mathematics are : in different attitude towards the subject prevailing among the students uses of faulty methods and techniques of teaching by the teachers, lack of interest in the teacher for teaching, doing less class and home tasks by the students lack of practice, disorderly organized contents of teaching and development of text books. It is observed that a good number of students fail in the first public examinations i.e. class tenth. It has created a misunderstanding and misgivings towards the future of learner. The teachers. Guardians and students are very much concerned about it. They feel to evolve strategy to identify the deficiency in learning mathematics and to remove them for predict further learning.

Importance In Education

'Diagnosis' which is a medical terminology, is effectively used in education these days. Teaching and learning is difficult proposition in the heterogeneous set up of the classes it requires full concentration to be paid towards learning by the students but it is hardly found among them. It is not that they arc shirking from their responsibility but they feel handicapped and deficient in this regard too. The deficiencies difficulties are to be diagnosed or identified and the solutions are to be suggested. Positive educational growth is the need of the time. Inputs can be provided after folly knowing the causes. Thus diagnosis carries much weight age in educational activities.

Deficiency in Learning Mathematics

Deficiency is actually the difficulty/problem/shortage causing backwardness in learning mathematics. It restricts complete learning. Deficiency can be explained in terms of; "difficulty or hurdles to check/block the easy learning. One may feel handicap or deficient while various techniques/ technicalities /formulae are involved m learning."'

It means a student may be deficient in attainment, achievement and performances. It is due to the lack of capacity of retention of the content taught, inadequate teaching techniques/skills used by the teacher to make the learner understand fully and the facilities required for organizing group learning. All these ingredients exercise negative impact on mathematics learning by the students. The results of first public examinations at school stage, in almost all the states, reveal that .t vary from 32% to maximum 50% Of course, a few states may be exception. It seems the efforts made by the" teachers and the undertaken by the learner become futile. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnose all the deficiencies of learning in mathematics tor suggestions to remediate.

Principle of Diagnosis

Diagnosis begins with each student s instructional needs that involve raising questions such as. What he can do? What arc his deficiencies and what can be done to improve upon teaching and
learning? Diagnosis Should be a continuous process and thus, should .it be directed towards belter teaching and by practical methods/ Practical strategies can be used for educational growth. Diagnosis of deficiency can be identified by using diagnostic test as a tool.

Statement of the Problem

The investigator could not find   many diagnostic research studies available in mathematics to refer  on large basis. Thus, having no alternative, he made the emerging trends in evaluation and its impact on future growth as the basis of this study. However, the felt views and opinions expressed by the teachers, students, parents and educationists were taken into account. The analysis of a few mathematics answer sheets of the class sixth students gave clues to the type of
deficiencies. The students committing a large number of mistakes and errors, get tailed in the examination Therefore, organizing remedial teaching to correct errors and mistakes is necessary for better learning. That is why being a student’s of mathematics, the investigator thought
to work upon diagnosis of the learning deficiency tor remediation
under the title. To diagnose the learning deficiencies in Mathematics of class VI students in and suggestions to remedy"


The following objectives were fixed for the present study:

  1. To diagnose the learning deficiency in finding integers and solving the equation.
  2. To identify deficiency in finding the LCM and mainly HCF.
  3. To find out the difficulties in solving equations with one variable
  4. To identify the difficulties in understanding the angles.
  5. To diagnose learning deficiency in finding out the third angle if two angles arc given.
  6. To identify the learning deficiencies in writing the name of sides of the angles.



For the collection of data booklets were used on a sample of 150 students from five Government senior secondary schools of Hamirpur district (H.P.) were made the subject of data collection.


Tools test were developed in the topics like; natural numbers and whole number, integers, factors and mult.ple equations with one variable, Angles and triangle. The test items were constructed, general form /type which were neither easy nor too hard. It was expected the items' tools were able to identify the deficiency faced by the learner of Class VI studying in  the government schools.

The booklets which were of question cum answer type were organized and scored with the help of scoring key. Individual items were analyzed and interpreted in terms of percentages on the basis of students offered correct and incorrect response and even those who
did not attempt." The items were objectively tested and verified. * Required table and diagrams were given. Summary of entire activities undertaken during the completion of project was given along with the findings and recommendations for further study.


The dissertation under the title, "To Diagnose the Learning Deficiency in Mathematics faced by the students of class VI of Hamirpur district and suggestions to improve" is a small efforts of the investigator. He has tried his best to diagnose the learning deficiencies the students of class VI encountered.


Data were analysed item wise. First the students of class VI were better placed in learning, retention and application. More than 50% out of 150 total could give correct responses. The following findings were noted:

  1. Boys and girls faced almost the identical quantum of learning deficiencies at class VI level.
  1. Item No. 15. 25. 26 (Find integer, equation with one variable find value of variable (2m = 6)) were answered by7 or 8 students out of 150. In case of former only 23.17% students wrongly attempted and 26.13% did not attempt.
  2. However, the percentage of learner varies from 2.94% to98.52% in boys and from 3.66% to 97.56% among girls students.
  3. Item number one (01) was wrongly answered by 34 (22.67%), 12 and 13 by 48 (32%). 19 sby 88 (58.67%); 20 by 59 (39.33%), 29 by 87 (58%). 30 by 90 (60%). 31 by 87 (58%) 33 by 52 (34.67%), and 38 by 56 (37.33%) The cut off percentage pass marks arc 33% and above. These nine students out of 150 below 33% items were wrongly answered by 23 students which percentage varies from 3.33% to 30.66%. It is the largest group whose learning deficiencies are so pressing that it cannot be ignored. It means the learners find them lacking in doing such items.
  4. In case of 9 students, the items committed wrong are related to the content area of equation with one variable, integers and name of sides of an angle.
  5. The percentage of learners out of 150 who did not attempt the items which scores varies from 0.67% (3)to 80.67% (26).  It means 50.60% students responded correctly, 23.17% incorrectly and 26.13% did not attempt. If both the numbers are added it comes to 49.30%, it means 49.30% students faced learning deficiencies in mathematics.


Pandey, M.M (2002-03): Diagnosing the learning difficulties in mathematics of the students of the classes of U.P and Ajmer (Rajasthan)

Wheeler, David (1982):  ‘Mathematics matters’, for the learning of mathematics 3, 1; 45-    47, “Principles and standards for school mathematics”, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, USA, 2000

Mathematics Learning Area (@))!): Statement, Curriculum Corporation, Melbourne,Australia.

How son, G.A (1991): ‘National Curricula in Mathematics,’ The Mathematical Association,  University of Southampton, 1991,pp.115-125

Krutetskii, V.A., The Psychology of Mathematical Abilities in school children, (edited By J.Kilpatrick and I. Wirszup), university of Chicago press, Chicago, 1976

Thurston, William, “Mathematical Education”, Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 37,844-850,1990

Sarangapani, Padma, “ A way to explore children’s understanding of mathematics”, Issues in primary education, 2(2), and 2000

Verma, V.S. and Mukherjee,A., “ Fractions- towards freedom from fear”, National Seminar on Aspects of Teaching and Learning mathematics, university of Delhi, January 1999

Singh, Hukum, Avtar, Ram and Singh V.P., A handbook for Designing Mathematics Laboratory in Schools, NCERT 2005

NCERT (2000): NCFSE, NCERT, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-16


Reconciling Ethics of Care and Justice: Alternative Set Of Values from the Feminist Standpoint

Reconciling Ethics of Care and Justice: Alternative Set Of Values from the Feminist Standpoint

Dr. Merina Islam
Assistant Professor in Philosophy
Cachar college, Silchar ,assam



In the sphere of morality, feminists recognize the social cons Million of values which provides a distinctive approach to feminist morality Instead of involving solely in the  struggle for equal rights, these feminists analyse critically the limitations and possibilities for women and propose more drastic changes as the necessary steps towards true and full freedom of women. The justice and care orientations of Kohlberg and Gilligan have important features in common which relate directly to Naess's ecosophy.When we care for and respect another being or even the earth, we are engaged in an act of friendship. Friendship, in this sense, is the organizing catalyst for the expansion of self and the proportional expansion of our moral capacity for care and fairness. Arne Naess's notions of ecosophy and self-realization suggest that we can befriend nature and the earth by expanding our sense of self through recognition of ecological interdependence. Here our identification is ecological and, in turn, our moral sensibility enlarges to include the natural environment.

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Provision Of Library Services For Distance Education Students At The University Of Ghana: Some Challenges

Provision Of Library Services For Distance Education Students At The University Of Ghana: Some Challenges

Daniel Opoku
Senior Librarian
University of Ghana


The explosion of distance education programmes in institutions of higher learning in Ghana needs to be accompanied by equivalent and appropriate provision of library services to distance learning students.  The main aim of this study is to investigate the role and involvement of the library in the provision of distance education at the University of Ghana.  The case study method was adopted.  Participants in the study were 91 distance learning students, 2 librarians at the University of Ghana Central Library (Balme Library), the national coordinator of the distance education programme, and 5 regional coordinators of the distance education programme.  Data was collected over two weekends, using interviews and questionnaire.  The results suggested that library service at the regional study centres was non-existent.  It was also revealed that an overwhelming majority of distance students recognized the need to supplement their course modules with additional reading, but the awareness of availability of library services for distance learning students is extremely low among them.  The study recommends that distance education institutions should replicate their on-campus library services for off-campus students.

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