ISSN-2231 0495

Volume 3 || Issue 5 - Sept. 2013

महामना मालवीय के शैक्षिक विचार

 

 

महामना मालवीय के शैक्षिक विचार

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महामना पं मदन मोहन मालवीय शिक्षा को मानव विकास का मूल मानते थे। लेकिन उनकी शिक्षा की परिकल्पना मात्र डिग्री प्राप्त करने तक नहीं, बलिक व्यकित्व के सर्वागीण विकास के व्यापक उद्देश्य के निर्धारण हेतु थी। इसकी बुनियाद समग्र व्यक्तित्व, भौतिक एवं आध्यातिमक दोनों पक्षों के विकास से प्रेरित थी। महामना की दृष्टि  भारतीय परम्परा से ओतप्रोत नैतिकता तथा धर्मिक आचरण, भावनात्मक रूप से सुदृढ़ मानवीयता के प्रति आग्रह, बड़ो, विद्वानो तथा गुरुजनो के प्रति आदर, कला और सौदर्य के प्रति स्वभाविक प्रवृत्ति तथा देश-भक्तिसे ओतप्रोत पीढि़यों के निर्माण की थी। काशी हिन्दू विश्वविधालय उनकी इसी परिकल्पना का जीवंत मंदिर है। जो मनुष्य और मनुष्य के बीच भातृत्व की भावना का विकास करें। मालवीय जी शिक्षा को ज्ञान प्राप्ति  और व्यक्ति, समाज एवं राष्ट्र के विकास का साधन मानते थे।

शिक्षा को मनुष्य के सर्वांगीण  विकास के आधार के रूप में देखते है यथा - शारीरिक बल, मानसिक दक्षता एवं आध्यातिमक उन्नति। शिक्षा के द्वारा मनुष्य में निर्णय लेने की आंतरिक शकित का विकास होता है, उसमें नेतृत्व की क्षमता विकसित होती है।

शिक्षा यह निर्णय करने में सहायक होती है कि कब, कहाँ, कैसे, क्यों  और क्या व्यवहार या कार्य किया जा जाए। शिक्षा के बिना मनुष्य में बड़े-छोटे का सामान्य ज्ञान एवं शिष्टाचार का विकास नहीं हो सकता। मालवीय जी केवल ज्ञान, समझ एवं प्रयोग की क्षमता के विकास को ही शिक्षा की पूर्णता नहीं मानते थे, अपितु इसका मुख्य अर्थ  विचारोंएवं कार्यों की अभिव्यक्ति की शैली से लेते थे। शिक्षा किसी भी समाज के स्वरूप का परिचायक होती है। यह समाज की आवश्यकता के अनुरूपछात्रों  का निर्माण कर समाज रूपी भवन के लिए मजबूत आधार प्रदान करती है। इस प्रकार महामना शिक्षा के व्यावहारिक पक्ष पर भी जोर देते थे तथा व्यक्ति के समग्र विकास हेतु शिक्षा को अपरिहार्य भी मानते थे।

शिक्षा के उद्देश्य

महमना की सनातन धर्म में अटूट आस्था थी। ये इसे संसार का सर्वश्रेष्ठ धर्म मानते थे। सनातन धर्म के अनुसार मनुष्य जीवन के चार उद्देश्य है- धर्म, अर्थ, काम और मोक्ष। मालवीय जी शिक्षा के  उद्देश्य मनुष्य थे- शारीरिक विकास समाज एवं मानव सेवा की भावना का विकास, बौद्धिक एवं तार्किक क्षमता का विकास,  वैज्ञानिक दृष्टि कोण उत्पन्न करना, पेशेवर योग्यताओं का विकास, करना (रोजगारोन्मुख शिक्षा), नैतिक एवं चारित्रिक विकास द्वारा व्यäतिव निर्माण,  आध्यातिमक विकास एवं धार्मिक शिक्षा,  राष्ट्रीय चेतना का विकास एवं जनजागरण,  राष्ट्रीय एकता का संवर्धन ,  सांस्कृतिक  विकास, राजनैतिक जागरूकता का विकास।

महामना के शैक्षिक विचार

महामना के शैक्षिक विचार सार्वकालिक एवं चिरनवीन है। वर्तमान भारतीय समाज के लिए उपयुक्त शिक्षा प्रणाली के संबंध में ऊहा-पोह की सिथति से बाहर निकालने हेतु इनकी प्रासंगिकता उच्च कोटि की है। वर्तमान शिक्षा-जगत की कर्इ महत्वपूर्ण समस्याओं का समाधान महामना के शैक्षिक चिंतन में स्पष्ट मिलता है-

1  जन शिक्षा - महामना प्रत्येक व्यक्ति की शिक्षा को राष्ट्र के विकास के लिए आवश्यक मानते थे। किसी भी परिस्तिथि के कारण शैक्षिक अवसरों  की वंचना को वह राष्ट्र के लिए खतरनाक मानते थे। आज भारत सरकार भी प्रत्येक जन की शिक्षा एवं साक्षरता हेतु सर्व शिक्षा अभियान जैसे बड़े कार्यक्रम चला रही है। देश की प्रगति में जनता की निरक्षरता को बाधा के रूप में देखा जा रहा है। इस संदर्भ में महामना के विचारोंने प्रेरणा अवश्य दी है।

2  स्त्री शिक्षा संबंधी विचार - महामना एक महान शिक्षाविद तथा युगद्रष्टा भी थे। उन्होंने स्त्री शिक्षा की अनिवार्यता पर बल आज से सौ वर्ष पूर्व दिया था। उन्होंने 1926 र्इ में काशी हिन्दू विश्वविधालय में छात्राओं के लिए महिला महाविधालय की स्थापना की । छात्राओं के लिए छात्रावासों का बड़ी सख्या में प्रबंध किया। प्रत्येक प्रकार से छात्राओं को पढ़ने-लिखने के लिए प्रोत्साहित किया। भेद-भाव रहित नारी शिक्षा की जोरदार वकालत उन्होंने की तथा  स्त्रीयों  की शिक्षा को पुरूषों की तुलना में अधिक महत्वपूर्ण भी बतलाया। स्त्री शिक्षा के संबंध में महामना के व्यापक एवं उदार विचार निश्चय ही आज की परिसिथतियों के लिए भी अनुकरणीय है।

3  नैतिक शिक्षा एवं चरित्र निर्माण - महामना शिक्षा के द्वारा मनुष्य का चरित्रिक उन्नयन करना चाहते थे। इसके लिए नैतिक शिक्षा के हिमायती थे। आचरण एवं विचारोंकी शुद्धता इनका तालमेल एवं गुणवत्ता पर महामना सदैव ही ध्यान दिया करते थे। वर्तमान शिक्षा पद्धति इस संदर्भ में महामना के विचारोंसे बहुत कुछ ग्रहण कर सकती है। क्यों कि यह आज के समय की महत्ती आवश्यकता भी है। समाज में सर्वत्र भ्रष्टाचार एवं बेर्इमानी का माहौल है। लोगो में नैतिक पतन बहुत अधिक हो रहा है। नैतिक शिक्षा में महामना के विचारोंको समिमलित करने से चरित्र निर्माण में मदद मिल सकती है।

4  राष्ट्रीयता का विकास - महामना ने जीवन भर राष्ट्रीयता की भावना के उत्थान हेतु कार्य किया। वे राष्ट्रीय एकता एवं साम्प्रदायिक सौहाद्र्र के बड़े पोषक थे। साम्प्रदायिक संकीर्णताओं को राष्ट्र की प्रगति में सर्वाधिक बडा बाधक मानते थे। वर्तमान पाठयक्रम में भी राष्ट्रीय एकता, अखड़ता एवं साम्प्रदायिक सौहाद्र्र को प्रोत्साहित किये जाने वाले पाठों को शामिल किया जाना चाहिए। इस दिशा में प्रयास भी वर्तमान समय में किए जा रहे है जो कि सराहनीय हैं।

5   व्यावसायिक शिक्षा संबंधी विचार - महामना शिक्षा का उद्देश्य मनुष्य केा आत्मनिर्भर बनाना मानते थे इस उद्देश्य से वेछात्रों  को व्यावसायिक  कौशलों  से भी सुशोभित करना चाहते थे। हालाँकि इस मुददे पर उनके विचार गाँधी से भिन्न थे। महामना के व्यावसायिक शिक्षा संबंघी विचार आज की युग की बड़ी समस्या का समाधान प्रस्तुत करते है। शिक्षा को रोजगारोन्मुख बनाने एवं व्यावसायिक शिक्षा के प्रस्फुटन के लिए प्रयास आज की शिक्षा-नीति में भी किए  जा रहे है।

6  मानवीय मूल्यों के विकास हेतु शिक्षा - महामना शिक्षा को मानवीय मूल्यों के विकास हेतु अत्यंत आवश्यक मानते थे। प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को धर्म के अनुरूप, समाज के अनुरूप एवं मर्यादा युक्त आचरण के लिए सदैव प्रेरित करना शिक्षा का दायित्व मानते थे। सत्य, अहिंसा, त्याग, करूणा, अस्तेय, अपरिग्रह, शौच आदि सदगुणों को पाठयक्रम के माध्यम से प्रोत्साहन देना चाहते थे।

महामना का शिक्षा के द्वारा मानवीय मूल्यों के प्रसार के विचार    आज नि:संदेह अत्यंत ही प्रासंगिक हो चले है क्योंकि यही मूल्य मनुष्य को मनुष्य बनाये रखते हैं। सभ्यताएँ चाहे कितनी भी विकसित क्यों न हो जाएँ, प्रेम, सत्य, अहिंसा, परोपकार, सहयोग, करूणा, सहिष्णुता आदि सदगुणों की उपयोगिता एवं आवश्यकता प्रत्येक समय में है।

7. स्वास्थ्य शिक्षा एवं शारीरिक शिक्षा - महामनाविधार्थियों के उच्च कोटि के शारीरिक विकास एवं स्वास्थ्य को शिक्षा के माध्यम से प्रेरित करना चाहते थे। इस हेतु व्यायाम, शारीरिक परिश्रम, खेल-कूद एवं योग पर सदैव जोर देते थे।

वर्तमान शैक्षिक पाठयक्रम भी तभी सार्थक हो सकता है जब वह हमें सबल एवं निर्भीक बनने में हमारी सहायता करे। इस हेतु शिक्षा के द्वारा संतुलित खान-पान, योग तथा शारीरिक श्रम एवं कसरत के प्रोत्साहन से उत्तम शारीरिक स्वास्थ्य को प्राप्त करने पर बल देना चाहिए।

8. छात्र एवं शिक्षकों के गुणों संबंध में अनुकरणीय विचार - महामना की छात्र एवं शिक्षकों के संबंध में संकल्पनाएँ आज भी अनुकरणीय है। छात्र का आचरण एवं उसका धर्म आज की युवा पीढ़ी को दिग्भ्रमित होने से बचा सकता है। साथ ही शिक्षकों से की गर्इ अपेक्षाएँ उन्हें अपने कार्यक्षेत्र में सफलता एवं लोकप्रियता के उच्चतम शिखर पर पहुँचा सकती है। छात्र एवं शिक्षक के मध्य पिता-पुत्र का संबंध यधपि वर्तमान परिदृश्य से गायब अवश्य हो रहा है तथापि इसकी आज की शिक्षा-प्रणाली को आवश्यकता है।

9.शिक्षा द्वारा वैज्ञानिक सोच एवं दृष्टि  को प्रोत्साहित करना आज के समाज की आवश्यकता - महामना विज्ञान की शिक्षा एवं वैज्ञानिक दृष्टि कोण के बहुत बड़े समर्थक थे इसे राष्ट्र की उन्नति के लिए आवश्यक भी मानते थे। वर्तमान शिक्षा पद्धति का भी मुख्य फोकस वैज्ञानिक सोच एवं दृष्टि कोण को प्रोत्साहित करना ही है। इस संबंध में महामना के विचारोंएवं वर्तमान शैक्षिक परिसिथतियों की आवश्यकताओं में पर्याप्त समानता है जिससे इनका समाधान किया जा सकता है।

10 लोकतांत्रिक मूल्यों की शिक्षा संबंधी विचार -  महामना लोकतांत्रिक मूल्यों में गहरी आस्था रखते थे। शिक्षा के द्वारा स्वतंत्रता, समानता एवं बन्धुत्व का प्रचार-प्रसार आवश्यक समझते थे। वर्तमान समय में यधपि भारत संसार का सबसे बड़ा लोकतंत्र है परन्तु नेता से लेकर जनता तक लोकतांत्रिक मूल्यों से हीन होते जा रहे है। ऐसे समय में महामना के लोकतांत्रिक मूल्यों सम्बनिधत विचारोंको शैक्षिक पाठयक्रम में स्थान देकरविधार्थियों में लोकतंत्र के प्रति आस्था का भाव उत्पन्न किया जा सकता है।

11 संपूर्ण व्यक्तित्व निर्माण के लिए शिक्षा - समय चाहे कोर्इ भी हो शिक्षा समग्र रूप में समाज में यही भूमिका निभाती हैं। महामना ने भी शिक्षा के द्वारा संपूर्ण व्यतित्व के निर्माण एवं विकास की बात कही है।

आज भी समग्र रूप में शिक्षा की यही प्रासंगिकता है। यह तभी सार्थक है जब व्यक्तित्व का सम्पूर्ण विकास शिक्षा के द्वारा हो सके। वास्तव में महामना का शैक्षिक दर्शन इतना व्यापक, मौलिक, व्यावहारिक एवं उपयोगी है कि प्रत्येक काल में अनुकरणीय है। महामना के काल की शैक्षिक परिसिथतियों एवं वर्तमान शैक्षिक परिसिथतियों में पर्याप्त साम्य होने के कारण इनके विचारोंकी प्रासंगिकता काफी बढ़ जाती है।

मालवीय जी ने शिक्षा को लेकर अपनी जो धारणा बनार्इ उसमें तत्कालीन परिसिथतियों की महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका थी। औपनिवेशिक भारत से धन की व्यापक लूट, नागरिकाें की दीन दशा, सनातन संस्कृति एवं हिन्दू धर्म के समक्ष उत्पन्न संकट, भारतीय साहित्य एवं भाषा से मोहभंग की सिथति, सर्वत्र व्याप्त निराशावाद, समाज में व्याप्त अंधविश्वास कुरीतियाँ एवं बुरार्इयाँ आदि महत्वपूर्ण प्रेरक परिसिथतियाँ थीं जिसने उनके शैक्षिक चिंतन के विकास में अहम योगदान दिया। इन परिसिथतियों ने महान देशभक्त धर्मानुरागी मालवीय को बैचेन कर दिया। उन्होंने संघर्ष करने का संकल्प किया। इन समस्याओं से अपने जीवन के अंतिम दिनों तक संघर्ष करते रहे। महामना ने शिक्षा के द्वारा चेतना की अलख जगाने का जो प्रयास काशी हिन्दू विश्वविधालय की स्थापना कर किया इसके लिए राष्ट्र सदैव उनका ऋणी रहेगा। इसके अतिरिक्त अनेक महान कार्य जो उनके द्वारा किये गए। उनके प्रत्येक कार्य से मानवता की सेवा, विशुद्ध राष्ट्र-प्रेम विशाल, âदयता एवं उदारता की सहज भावना परिलक्षित हेाती है। राष्ट्रहित के लिए सर्वस्व समर्पित करने की यह नि:स्वार्थ आतुरता अन्यत्र नहींं मिलती।

लार्ड मैकाले की कुटिल शिक्षा-नीति के हाथों दम तोड़ती प्राच्य भारतीय शिक्षा व्यवस्था एवं प्राचीन भारतीय संस्कृति की जिस प्रकार से रक्षा महामना ने की वैसे ही महान प्रयत्नों के द्वारा वर्तमान शैक्षिक समस्याओं का समाधान सभंव है। शिक्षा सामाजिक सरोकारों एवं संस्कारों के विकास के दायित्व से कभी मुक्त नहींं हो सकती है। भारतीय सन्दर्भ में महामना की विशेष प्रांसगिकता को महत्वपूर्ण कसौटियों पर देखा जा सकता है, जो वर्तमान भारतीय शिक्षा के लिए उपयोगी है।

महामना के शैक्षिक विचारोंको कुछ नवीन परिवर्तनों के उचित समायोजन के साथ वर्तमान परिसिथतियों में महामना के शैक्षिक विचारोंको सहजता से अपनाया जा सकता है। ये आज भी बहुत प्रासंगिक है।

सन्दर्भ ग्रन्थ सूची

तिवारी, उमेश दत्त (1988). भारत भूषण महामना पं0 मदन मोहन मालवीय. वाराणसी : काशी हिन्दू विश्वविधालय प्रेस.

द्विवेदी, Ñष्णदत्त (1981). भारतीय पुनर्जागरण और मदनमोहन मालवीय, वाराणसी : काशी हिन्दू विश्वविधालय प्रेस.

पाण्डेय, शिवराम (1932). मालवीय कामेमोरेशन वाल्यूम. वाराणसी : काशी हिन्दू विश्वविधालय प्रेस.

प्रधान, अवधेश (2007). महामना के विचार (एक चयन). वाराणसी : काशी हिन्दू विश्वविधालय प्रेस.

मालवीय, मदन मोहन (1915). प्रयाग सेवा समिति का पत्र. इलाहाबाद : साधना प्रेस

मालवीय, मदन मोहन (1930). आत्मकथा. वाराणसी : काशी हिन्दू विश्वविधालय प्रेस.

मालवीय, मदन मोहन (1935). पूज्य गुरुदेव पं0 आदित्य राम भटटाचार्य की जीवनी. वाराणसी : काशी हिन्दू विश्वविधालय प्रेस.

व्यास, ब्रजमोहन (1963). महामना मालवीय. प्रयाग : साधना प्रकाशन.

श्रीवास्तव, यमुना प्रसाद (1961). महामना मालवीय. वाराणसी : अशोक पुस्तक मंदिर.

 

Probing the Interplay of Nature of Science with Culture of Science in the Formation of Alternative Frameworks

Probing the Interplay of Nature of Science with Culture of Science in the Formation of Alternative Frameworks

Rakesh Kumar

Assistant Professor

MV COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,

University of Delhi.

Abstract

When we differentiate ‘Scientific Concepts’ from ‘OTHER’ Concepts, recurrence of what is supposed to be ‘true’ in more than one context is integral. This variance is noted by different researchers in specific conceptual areas. Nature of science has its implications on what is acceptable as scientific knowledge, how do we think we develop our own scientific knowledge, understanding about what is true and real, notion of permanence /tentativeness of reasons drawn in science, classroom processes (through the issue of emulation of culture of science as practice) etc. This study attempts to identify and explore these implications from the interplay of the Nature of science framework in the experiential setup of the culture of science (to be developed in science classrooms).

Key Words: Possible Sites of Alternative Frameworks, Nature of Science, Metacognition and Nature of Science, Culture of Science, Classroom Practices, construction of scientific knowledge


 

 

Introduction:

(Meichtry, 1999) explains that authentic inquiry in a classroom requires the teacher to understand how science operates as a discipline. If the teacher does not understand how knowledge is obtained and verified as scientific knowledge, then inquiry in the classroom is limited to teaching process skills rather than knowledge about science.

Key Concerns - one: Nature of Science and Scientific Knowledge

In simple terms, nature of science is related primarily with the content and processes specific to science. Scientific knowledge can be seen as a product generated out of these contents and processes interacting with the social context specific to the scientific community. The culture of science can be understood here as this social context in which the scientific community deliberates professionally.

(Meichtry, 1999) depicts the nature of science as a human activity, a process used to investigate natural phenomena, a process used to add to an existing knowledge base, and a social enterprise. On the other hand, scientific knowledge is presented as a product of the human process of science and [its social context.

(Lederman, 1999)  elucidates that scientists have inherent, agreed upon processes and assumptions. These processes and assumptions help them to construct meaningful knowledge. The culture of science will include these inherent, agreed upon, processes and assumptions. In science classrooms, the practice of this culture of science can prepare the science learners for participation in the generation of scientific knowledge. “Inquiry that teaches process skills without teaching why these skills are important to the construction of scientific knowledge, offers only a surface understanding of the culture of science” (E. Peters & Kitsantas, 2010).

Key Concerns - two: Tentative and Revisionary Nature of Science

“If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants”

- Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727)

“I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world”

-Albert Einstein     (1879 - 1955)

Some  contemporary  explorers  of  the  process  of  generation  of  knowledge  (termed scientific) have worked individually and institutionally to explore conclusiveness  in  the  process  of  generation  of  scientific  knowledge  using  the  terms "tentative"  and  "revisionary".  The  tentative  component  of  this  notion  emphasizes  the inconclusiveness  of  scientific  knowledge.  The revisionary component stresses on the alteration of existing scientific knowledge in response to altered theoretical and experimental positions.

This tentative and revisionary nature of science is an important constituent of science education because of its implications on the teaching learning process in science. In the context of developing scientific knowledge, the culture of science also imbibes this tentative and revisionary nature of science when the scientific community is practising this culture. This culture also contradicts a perception that science is a collection of unalterable facts. Altering the accepted scientific conception also comprises of a metacognitive process of thinking about a scientist’s own process of thinking.

Key Concerns- three: Metacognition and Nature of   Science

Metacognition is the ability to think about and evaluate your own thinking processes (Brown, 1987) and is a part of being a self-regulated learner (Zimmerman, 1998).Taking into account the culture of science that can be practised in science classrooms, learners can perform an inquiry and think about why they are conducting certain processes and evaluate their thinking in terms of the way a scientist might think about the processes and outcomes.

A typical learner is not exposed to the culture of science, so the teacher needs to provide the scaffolding that will illustrate how scientists think and operate. (McComas, W. F., Clough, M. P., & Almazroa, 1998) developed the argument that metacognitive prompts built from the identified aspects of the nature of science will give teachers a vehicle to scaffold scientific thinking to learners who are underexposed to this type of thinking.

Metacognition and the culture of science can be seen to be closely associated as thinking and reflecting becomes an integral part of the development of scientific knowledge. (E. E. Peters & Kitsantas, 2009) contends that the culture of science is passed down from generation to generation through science classes. If each generation receives the idea that science is a body of knowledge and has no access to the nature of science, knowledge about how science generates and verifies knowledge will no longer be part of the public’s understanding of science. Education has a responsibility to teach learners how to think like a scientist in order to continue to be progressive, critical thinkers in our technological future. The idea of being a critical thinker in the progressive future is not a utilitarian one, but is integrated with the development of the human being while culture of science is being practiced.

Key Concerns- four: Classroom Practices and Nature of Sciences

In contrast with the argument that had built up in the earlier section, science text materials contribute to the development of learners’ views that scientific knowledge is an array of unconnected facts and concepts. Rather than helping learners to develop meaningful understandings about scientific knowledge and the conditions by which it develops, this text subject learners to an inconceivable stream of technical jargon. (Meichtry, 1999) explains that the pace makes difficult, if not impossible, for the development of any sense of how concepts and theories originate, how they come to be validated and accepted, and how they connect with experience and reveal relations among seemingly disparate phenomena. If a teacher understands the nature of science, he or she is better able to pose questions to learners about why they are doing process skills as well as establishing an environment that allows learners to construct meaningful scientific knowledge.

Teaching the nature of science out of the context of scientific knowledge and inquiry does not give learners access to the important connection between scientific knowledge and knowledge about science (Akerson & Abd-El-Khalick, 2004). Metacognition is one of the mechanisms that can be used by the teachers so that learners develop the habit to think deeply in consonance with nature of science.

An important deduction from the discussion of nature of science is that with the "tentative" and "revisionary" nature of scientific theories the notion of Alternative Frameworks are very good blend. This blend effectively contradicts the notion of "misconceptions" with a negative inbuilt connotation. The nature of science as a social enterprise demands the science classrooms, to be designed in a collaborative fashion so as to encourage sharing, argumentative thinking and revisiting what is learnt.

Discussion

Following are the key questions which can help to summarize the importance and implications of this probe: What is acceptable as scientific knowledge and how is it generated? Are there any right or wrong concepts in science? How to look at the conceptions other than the ones that are dominantly accepted by the scientific community? What is so specific in science that the divergence from scientific conceptions matters so much to the scientific community? Can we actually think about our own thinking on the subject of construction of scientific knowledge? How do learning science in classrooms interplays with the nature of science? This also mandates a review of different theoretical positions augmented by research findings, to understand possible sites of alternative frameworks in terms of nature of science and learning theories.

The first question is “What is acceptable as scientific knowledge and how is it generated?” It follows from the understanding developed that the scientific knowledge is a product of deliberations within the scientific community practising the culture of science which includes inherent, agreed upon, processes and assumptions. Thus a product of this practice will be acceptable as scientific knowledge. On the question, “Are there any right or wrong concepts in science”, it follows that the question of a conception being right or wrong is understood in terms of inconclusiveness of scientific knowledge. This means, a conception is ‘the best one till the better one replaces the present one’. Or in simple words, no concept is considered as the right Concept.  This  understanding  about  the  nature  of  science  also  supports  the nomenclature  ’Alternative  Framework’.

Next question viz. “How to look at the conceptions other than the ones that are dominantly accepted by the scientific community?” is understood as follows. The practice of culture of science is more important than the product of this practice. An opportunity to revisit one’s own conception through metacognitive and critical thinking is a part of the revisionary nature of science. Revisiting Alternative Frameworks through metacognitive practices become part of science learning if culture of science is practised in science classrooms. Inherent, agreed upon, processes and assumptions are the part of knowledge about how science generates and verifies knowledge. Thus, the conceptions other than those accepted by the scientific community are to be revisited through metacognitive practices.

A reflection on the question “What is so specific in science that the divergence from scientific conceptions matters so much to the scientific community?” presents us an understanding that the Divergence under discussion means, there can be gaps in the processes and assumptions in generating scientific knowledge in the classrooms, something that needs to be strengthened. A related question “Can we actually think about our own thinking on the subject of construction of scientific knowledge?” leads us to an understanding that metacognitive ability and self-regulation are parts of culture of science learning and knowledge generation, therefore thinking about one’s own thinking related to construction of scientific knowledge is an inherent part of scientific knowledge construction.

A question about “How do learning science in classrooms interplay with the nature of science?” that has a direct bearing on science learning in classroom settings, is an important one. Learning in science classrooms seems to be in contrast with the nature of science where the concepts and theories do not originate. They are not validated and accepted but are influentially agreed as the pace makes it difficult for learner to pose questions and construct them meaningfully.

A reflection on the above questions develops an understanding that the Alternative Frameworks are possibly formed when the culture of science (discussed above) is not practised in science classrooms (leaving some gaps). Addressing of the alternative frameworks will involve filling these gaps using appropriate methodologies and strategies.

Conclusions

From the analysis of related issues it emerged that the formation of abstract models is related with the formation of Alternative Frameworks. In this context, the classroom culture developed by the teacher, providing space for multiple interpretations by the learners, engaging learners in a metacognitive manner to reflect on their own learning, encouraging learners to generate, explain and put forth their arguments and models become important considerations. These aspects also play an important role while addressing the Alternative Frameworks. A classroom environment for addressing the Alternative Frameworks will constitute the need to test the concepts of the learners, modify the language as per learners’ needs and contextualising the teaching-learning process and the pedagogical environment as per their needs.

References

  • Akerson, V. L., & Abd-El-Khalick. (2004). Learning as conceptual change: Factors mediating the development of preservice elementary teachers’ views of the nature of science. Science Education (Vol. 88). Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company. doi:10.1002/sce.10143
  • Brown, A. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. (F. E. W. and R. H. Kluwe, Ed.)Metacognition, Motivation and Understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Lederman, N. G. (1999). Teachers´ understanding of the nature of science and classroom practice: Factors that facilitate or impede the relationship. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, 916–929.
  • McComas, W. F., Clough, M. P., & Almazroa, H. (1998). A review of the role and character of the nature of science in science education. In W. F. McComas (Ed.), The nature of science in science education: Rationales and strategies (pp. 3–39). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Meichtry, Y. J. (1999). The Nature of Science and Scientific Knowledge: Implications for a Preservice Elementary Methods Course. Science & Education, 8(3), 273–286. doi:10.1023/A:1008693930840
  • Peters, E. E., & Kitsantas, A. (2009). Self‐regulation of student epistemic thinking in science: The role of metacognitive prompts. Educational Psychology, 30(1), 27–52. doi:10.1080/01443410903353294
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models. In D. H. Schunk (Ed.), Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. pp. 1–19). New York, NY: The Guildford Press.

 

Probing the Interplay of Nature of Science with Culture of Science in the Formation of Alternative Frameworks

Probing the Interplay of Nature of Science with Culture of Science in the Formation of Alternative Frameworks

Rakesh Kumar

Assistant Professor

MV COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,

University of Delhi.

Abstract

When we differentiate ‘Scientific Concepts’ from ‘OTHER’ Concepts, recurrence of what is supposed to be ‘true’ in more than one context is integral. This variance is noted by different researchers in specific conceptual areas. Nature of science has its implications on what is acceptable as scientific knowledge, how do we think we develop our own scientific knowledge, understanding about what is true and real, notion of permanence /tentativeness of reasons drawn in science, classroom processes (through the issue of emulation of culture of science as practice) etc. This study attempts to identify and explore these implications from the interplay of the Nature of science framework in the experiential setup of the culture of science (to be developed in science classrooms).

Key Words: Possible Sites of Alternative Frameworks, Nature of Science, Metacognition and Nature of Science, Culture of Science, Classroom Practices, construction of scientific knowledge


 

 

Introduction:

(Meichtry, 1999) explains that authentic inquiry in a classroom requires the teacher to understand how science operates as a discipline. If the teacher does not understand how knowledge is obtained and verified as scientific knowledge, then inquiry in the classroom is limited to teaching process skills rather than knowledge about science.

Key Concerns - one: Nature of Science and Scientific Knowledge

In simple terms, nature of science is related primarily with the content and processes specific to science. Scientific knowledge can be seen as a product generated out of these contents and processes interacting with the social context specific to the scientific community. The culture of science can be understood here as this social context in which the scientific community deliberates professionally.

(Meichtry, 1999) depicts the nature of science as a human activity, a process used to investigate natural phenomena, a process used to add to an existing knowledge base, and a social enterprise. On the other hand, scientific knowledge is presented as a product of the human process of science and [its social context.

(Lederman, 1999)  elucidates that scientists have inherent, agreed upon processes and assumptions. These processes and assumptions help them to construct meaningful knowledge. The culture of science will include these inherent, agreed upon, processes and assumptions. In science classrooms, the practice of this culture of science can prepare the science learners for participation in the generation of scientific knowledge. “Inquiry that teaches process skills without teaching why these skills are important to the construction of scientific knowledge, offers only a surface understanding of the culture of science” (E. Peters & Kitsantas, 2010).

Key Concerns - two: Tentative and Revisionary Nature of Science

“If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants”

- Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727)

“I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world”

-Albert Einstein     (1879 - 1955)

Some  contemporary  explorers  of  the  process  of  generation  of  knowledge  (termed scientific) have worked individually and institutionally to explore conclusiveness  in  the  process  of  generation  of  scientific  knowledge  using  the  terms "tentative"  and  "revisionary".  The  tentative  component  of  this  notion  emphasizes  the inconclusiveness  of  scientific  knowledge.  The revisionary component stresses on the alteration of existing scientific knowledge in response to altered theoretical and experimental positions.

This tentative and revisionary nature of science is an important constituent of science education because of its implications on the teaching learning process in science. In the context of developing scientific knowledge, the culture of science also imbibes this tentative and revisionary nature of science when the scientific community is practising this culture. This culture also contradicts a perception that science is a collection of unalterable facts. Altering the accepted scientific conception also comprises of a metacognitive process of thinking about a scientist’s own process of thinking.

Key Concerns- three: Metacognition and Nature of   Science

Metacognition is the ability to think about and evaluate your own thinking processes (Brown, 1987) and is a part of being a self-regulated learner (Zimmerman, 1998).Taking into account the culture of science that can be practised in science classrooms, learners can perform an inquiry and think about why they are conducting certain processes and evaluate their thinking in terms of the way a scientist might think about the processes and outcomes.

A typical learner is not exposed to the culture of science, so the teacher needs to provide the scaffolding that will illustrate how scientists think and operate. (McComas, W. F., Clough, M. P., & Almazroa, 1998) developed the argument that metacognitive prompts built from the identified aspects of the nature of science will give teachers a vehicle to scaffold scientific thinking to learners who are underexposed to this type of thinking.

Metacognition and the culture of science can be seen to be closely associated as thinking and reflecting becomes an integral part of the development of scientific knowledge. (E. E. Peters & Kitsantas, 2009) contends that the culture of science is passed down from generation to generation through science classes. If each generation receives the idea that science is a body of knowledge and has no access to the nature of science, knowledge about how science generates and verifies knowledge will no longer be part of the public’s understanding of science. Education has a responsibility to teach learners how to think like a scientist in order to continue to be progressive, critical thinkers in our technological future. The idea of being a critical thinker in the progressive future is not a utilitarian one, but is integrated with the development of the human being while culture of science is being practiced.

Key Concerns- four: Classroom Practices and Nature of Sciences

In contrast with the argument that had built up in the earlier section, science text materials contribute to the development of learners’ views that scientific knowledge is an array of unconnected facts and concepts. Rather than helping learners to develop meaningful understandings about scientific knowledge and the conditions by which it develops, this text subject learners to an inconceivable stream of technical jargon. (Meichtry, 1999) explains that the pace makes difficult, if not impossible, for the development of any sense of how concepts and theories originate, how they come to be validated and accepted, and how they connect with experience and reveal relations among seemingly disparate phenomena. If a teacher understands the nature of science, he or she is better able to pose questions to learners about why they are doing process skills as well as establishing an environment that allows learners to construct meaningful scientific knowledge.

Teaching the nature of science out of the context of scientific knowledge and inquiry does not give learners access to the important connection between scientific knowledge and knowledge about science (Akerson & Abd-El-Khalick, 2004). Metacognition is one of the mechanisms that can be used by the teachers so that learners develop the habit to think deeply in consonance with nature of science.

An important deduction from the discussion of nature of science is that with the "tentative" and "revisionary" nature of scientific theories the notion of Alternative Frameworks are very good blend. This blend effectively contradicts the notion of "misconceptions" with a negative inbuilt connotation. The nature of science as a social enterprise demands the science classrooms, to be designed in a collaborative fashion so as to encourage sharing, argumentative thinking and revisiting what is learnt.

Discussion

Following are the key questions which can help to summarize the importance and implications of this probe: What is acceptable as scientific knowledge and how is it generated? Are there any right or wrong concepts in science? How to look at the conceptions other than the ones that are dominantly accepted by the scientific community? What is so specific in science that the divergence from scientific conceptions matters so much to the scientific community? Can we actually think about our own thinking on the subject of construction of scientific knowledge? How do learning science in classrooms interplays with the nature of science? This also mandates a review of different theoretical positions augmented by research findings, to understand possible sites of alternative frameworks in terms of nature of science and learning theories.

The first question is “What is acceptable as scientific knowledge and how is it generated?” It follows from the understanding developed that the scientific knowledge is a product of deliberations within the scientific community practising the culture of science which includes inherent, agreed upon, processes and assumptions. Thus a product of this practice will be acceptable as scientific knowledge. On the question, “Are there any right or wrong concepts in science”, it follows that the question of a conception being right or wrong is understood in terms of inconclusiveness of scientific knowledge. This means, a conception is ‘the best one till the better one replaces the present one’. Or in simple words, no concept is considered as the right Concept.  This  understanding  about  the  nature  of  science  also  supports  the nomenclature  ’Alternative  Framework’.

Next question viz. “How to look at the conceptions other than the ones that are dominantly accepted by the scientific community?” is understood as follows. The practice of culture of science is more important than the product of this practice. An opportunity to revisit one’s own conception through metacognitive and critical thinking is a part of the revisionary nature of science. Revisiting Alternative Frameworks through metacognitive practices become part of science learning if culture of science is practised in science classrooms. Inherent, agreed upon, processes and assumptions are the part of knowledge about how science generates and verifies knowledge. Thus, the conceptions other than those accepted by the scientific community are to be revisited through metacognitive practices.

A reflection on the question “What is so specific in science that the divergence from scientific conceptions matters so much to the scientific community?” presents us an understanding that the Divergence under discussion means, there can be gaps in the processes and assumptions in generating scientific knowledge in the classrooms, something that needs to be strengthened. A related question “Can we actually think about our own thinking on the subject of construction of scientific knowledge?” leads us to an understanding that metacognitive ability and self-regulation are parts of culture of science learning and knowledge generation, therefore thinking about one’s own thinking related to construction of scientific knowledge is an inherent part of scientific knowledge construction.

A question about “How do learning science in classrooms interplay with the nature of science?” that has a direct bearing on science learning in classroom settings, is an important one. Learning in science classrooms seems to be in contrast with the nature of science where the concepts and theories do not originate. They are not validated and accepted but are influentially agreed as the pace makes it difficult for learner to pose questions and construct them meaningfully.

A reflection on the above questions develops an understanding that the Alternative Frameworks are possibly formed when the culture of science (discussed above) is not practised in science classrooms (leaving some gaps). Addressing of the alternative frameworks will involve filling these gaps using appropriate methodologies and strategies.

Conclusions

From the analysis of related issues it emerged that the formation of abstract models is related with the formation of Alternative Frameworks. In this context, the classroom culture developed by the teacher, providing space for multiple interpretations by the learners, engaging learners in a metacognitive manner to reflect on their own learning, encouraging learners to generate, explain and put forth their arguments and models become important considerations. These aspects also play an important role while addressing the Alternative Frameworks. A classroom environment for addressing the Alternative Frameworks will constitute the need to test the concepts of the learners, modify the language as per learners’ needs and contextualising the teaching-learning process and the pedagogical environment as per their needs.

References

  • Akerson, V. L., & Abd-El-Khalick. (2004). Learning as conceptual change: Factors mediating the development of preservice elementary teachers’ views of the nature of science. Science Education (Vol. 88). Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company. doi:10.1002/sce.10143
  • Brown, A. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. (F. E. W. and R. H. Kluwe, Ed.)Metacognition, Motivation and Understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Lederman, N. G. (1999). Teachers´ understanding of the nature of science and classroom practice: Factors that facilitate or impede the relationship. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, 916–929.
  • McComas, W. F., Clough, M. P., & Almazroa, H. (1998). A review of the role and character of the nature of science in science education. In W. F. McComas (Ed.), The nature of science in science education: Rationales and strategies (pp. 3–39). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Meichtry, Y. J. (1999). The Nature of Science and Scientific Knowledge: Implications for a Preservice Elementary Methods Course. Science & Education, 8(3), 273–286. doi:10.1023/A:1008693930840
  • Peters, E. E., & Kitsantas, A. (2009). Self‐regulation of student epistemic thinking in science: The role of metacognitive prompts. Educational Psychology, 30(1), 27–52. doi:10.1080/01443410903353294
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models. In D. H. Schunk (Ed.), Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. pp. 1–19). New York, NY: The Guildford Press.

 

Preconceived Notion of Expected Answer and Teaching-Learning Contexts: An Analysis

Preconceived Notion of Expected Answer and Teaching-Learning Contexts: An Analysis

Rakesh Kumar

Assistant Professor

MV COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,

University of Delhi.

Abstract

The modern understanding of teaching learning of science recognises the creation and importance of Alternative Frameworks among learners in science. In the process of addressing these Alternative Frameworks, a trainer's exasperation towards supplying their own ideas as the most efficate ones may be questionable. This work presents outcome from feedback on 592 science lessons from 30 pre-service teachers on their natural dispositions towards coming out of the preconceived notion of expected answer. The teachers agree that they could come out of the Preconceived Notion of expected answer in their average dispositions. Further, analyses of these dispositions show that the range is large that shows a very high difference between minimum and maximum values. The mean means most of teachers agree that they could come out of the preconceived notion of expected answer. Skewness is slightly positive i.e. the numbers of low scorers are slightly more than the number of high scorers. Kurtosis shows that the distribution is moderately leptokurtic.

 

Key Words: Expected Answer, Pre-Service Teachers, Teaching-Learning Contexts, Alternative Frameworks 

 


 

Introduction:

If I had to reduce all of educational psychology to just one principle I would say this:

“The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly”

(Ausubel, 1968)

The terms children’s science and learners’ science had been discussed in the literature having a reference to children’s thinking about scientific conceptions involving general and specific categories of knowledge and conceptions, mental processes, learners’ frameworks of beliefs, assumption, emotions, models, values and aesthetics, and children’s contexts of meaning. “Specifically, the major concerns involve identifying (a) potential underlying beliefs that may influence the construction of concepts, (b) cognitive processes that contribute to the construction of concepts and meaning, (c) variables that affect conceptual development, and (d) variables that may influence the construction of meaning” (Bloom, 1990).

Though reasoning behind the easy ideas that children make, may not be as complex as a scientific attitude behind the observer cannot be challenged. “Some call these early ideas that children form as Alternative Frameworks; others label them naive conceptions, or alternative conceptions. Alternative Frameworks might also be referred to as preconceived notions, non-scientific beliefs, naive theories, mixed conceptions, or conceptual misunderstandings. Basically, in science these are cases in which something a person knows and believes does not match what is known to be scientifically correct. These terms identifying similar mismatches are used interchangeably in this study and are referred to as Alternative Frameworks” (Worth, 1999).

Need and Significance:

(Worth, 1999) in ‘The Power of Children’s Thinking’ thinks of  children  as natural scientists and posits that, “They do what scientists do, but perhaps for some slightly different and less conscious reasons. They are anxious to understand the world just as adults are or one can say even better than them. There is a terribly interesting, but rather confusing, world full of stimuli all around them. Many adults, however, have learned to ignore some of that world rather than investigate it. Young children ignore very little” (Worth, 1999). The curiosity of children is many times evident in the questions that they ask. Since children are more curious and receptive than usual adults. Instead of idealised world of scientific theories, they weave. The web of their understanding from the exploration of messy world around them and this is with what a child enters the school.

“Moreover when children start school and throughout their school years, they already have preformed ideas about how the natural world works. These ideas may come from within the instructional setting or from their experiences outside of school. Research has shown that teaching is unlikely to be effective unless teachers and curriculum materials take into account learners’ preconceptions” (Driver, Squires, Rushworth, & Wood-Robinson, 1994). Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education pointed out certain identified reasons for learner confusion and Alternative Frameworks” (Stepans, 1994). The following three reasons are included in the list. First, instruction, which fails to identify what learners’ initial ideas are, can leave learners’ erroneous ideas unchanged. It is similar to a doctor diagnosing an illness. You would not prescribe a course of treatment without examining the symptoms first. Second, there is often unexplored conflict between learners’ everyday experiences and the classroom or textbook presentation (emphasis added). And, third, teachers and schools (even tests!) often erroneously assume that learners understand a concept based on the words learners use when describing something (e.g.: evaporation). Scientific terminology is not sufficient evidence of learning unless you can ensure that learners use the terms with meaning.

The important role of teacher may be identified here to test the presence of learners’ ideas that remain unexplored and are prone to be ignored in the formal tests and examinations. These cannot be identified if the teacher is having his/her own preconceived notions about expected answers. Thus, we need to explore the dispositions of teachers to have their own preconceived notions of expected answers. This study explores the pre service teachers’ self-assessment related to their classroom practices in terms of coming out of the preconceived notion of expected answer in science. No a-priori theory have been considered and no hypothesis has been made. Instead, their own self-assessment on the question had been analysed in terms of what emerged out of normal settings of science classrooms. This also helped the investigator in keeping away from his own preconceived notions about the issue to maintain objectivity of the work.

Research Methodology

Research Questions and Objective

The following question is the focus:

How do science teachers perceive their natural disposition towards coming out of the preconceived notion of expected answer as a part of the teaching-learning process?

The study has focused on the following objective:

“Exploring teaching learning contexts in science classrooms, with special reference that they could come out of the preconceived notion of expected answer as a part of the teaching-learning process”.

Methodology, sample and tools:

Methodology:

Based on understanding developed from the review of related literature and researcher’s own experience as science teacher/teacher educator, a comprehensive tool was developed by the researcher. This tool related to different issues related to different areas of the teaching-learning processes in science.

This tool was used on 38 pre-service teachers. Data from 30 pre-service science teachers was collected in the form of self-assessment feedback regarding 592 Science lessons transacted by them during their school life experience program. 8 Pre-service teachers became non-responding. The teachers were asked to rate themselves on the basis of self-assessment after each lesson. This feedback on 592 lessons from the teachers is received, analysed and reported. The feedback is quantified, described and analysed in terms of science teachers approach towards forming and addressing Alternative Frameworks during the science classes with special reference to posing interpretative questions to the learners in science.

These 38 Pre-Service science teachers who are the B.Ed. students of the two of Education in Delhi, India) were chosen as samples for the study. Most of the observations, interpretations, analysis and reflections done by the participants were discussed with them also to develop their insight about their own science classrooms.

All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program. Training of teachers was done for both data collection (one day) and analysis (three days). In addition, two days were devoted for reflection and discussion on resolution of the problems faced during the process.

Sample

Total 38 Pre-Service Science teachers participated from two B.Ed. colleges of University of Delhi and GGSIP University, Delhi. This “ensured participation of total 18 schools in which above Pre-Service teachers had their School Life Experience Program. These teachers had diverse graduation and post-graduation subjects.

 

Figure 1 - Classification of teachers’ sample


 


 


Figure 2 - Classification of School sample


Notations: G- Government; P- Private; G.A.-Government Aided; K.V.-Kendriya Vidyalaya


Out of total 38 Pre-Service teachers, code numbers 1.01 to code number 1.30 were given to 30 Pre-service teachers from Guru Ram Dass College of Education and 8 Pre-Service teachers from Maharishi Valmiki College of Education received code numbers 2.01 to code number 2.08. Clearly, the sample is not a random sample but a purposive one. Although no deliberate attempt was made for the sample to be homogeneous or representative, it got addressed in the process to some extent. The science teachers belonged to different socio-economic backgrounds. The science learners’ belonged to different sorts of school settings. These types of schools included all boys’ school, all girls’ schools, government, government aided and public schools. Therefore, we can say that different socio-economic backgrounds and diversity in teaching-learning settings has been represented largely in the sample.

Tools for data collection

In the review of the available tools, it was identified that these tools cannot be used in order to collect required data for the present study or in other words, suitable tools for getting the relevant data could not be located. Thus, in order to explore teaching learning contexts in science classrooms with respect to possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks among learners in science, a tool was needed. Self-assessment feedback schedule in the form of self-appraisal developed by the researcher for Science teachers was thus prepared for data collection. This self-appraisal had both open ended and close-ended questions, questions that can be analysed in quantitative and qualitative ways. The major themes of the questionnaire include exploration about the resources that the learners tend to tap, their preferred learning styles, possible sites of Alternative Frameworks, their notion about themselves as science learners etc.

To validate the tools, the First draft of tools was given to experts namely school teachers, and colleagues in teacher education institutions, and ambiguous language and other issues resolved and the items modified subsequently.

Analysis of Data

Self-assessment feedback Schedule, contained 26 items originally, had the option of responding in terms of strongly agree, agree and disagree. In order to understand this data, these three categories were given the weight two, one and zero respectively. Thus from one day feedback of a particular science teacher there were responses in the form of zero, one and two. For one particular science teacher, these responses were collected on Microsoft Excel sheet for the period of entire school life experience program. From this, average score of one particular teacher on each item is calculated. Similarly, this process was repeated for the 30 teachers who responded to this self-appraisal. These average scores of 30 teachers were then entered in another Excel sheet to be analysed for their responses on the selected item. Various descriptive of the item is calculated and reported. Graphs were plotted to show the average per day score of the 30 science teachers. These were further analysed and reported in terms of graphs showing histogram and probability curve for giving pictorial idea of the responses of the learners (Figure 1 and Figure 2). The descriptive that have been calculated are Min., Max., Range, Mean, Std. Deviation, Skewness, and Kurtosis.

Findings

Table 1 shows the average scores of many teachers on the feedback schedule correlated to the Symbol that " Could come out of the Preconceived Notion of expected answer" of the teaching-learning discourse in cost of Teachers' Self-Assessment. The evaluation, interpretation and proper graphical descriptions had been given in the mentioned discussions using the data from the Table 1. Table 2 describes the properties of unclear variables in the above table.

 

Table 1 - Individual average score of different respondents on the item: Could come out of the preconceived notion of expected answer

 

 

Table 2 - Properties of undefined variables in the Table 1

 

 

Figure 3 - Individual average score of different respondents on the item 'Could come out of the preconceived notion of expected answer'

 

Figure 4 - Grouped average score of different respondents on the item 'Could come out of the preconceived notion of expected answer'

At a glance:

 

Mean: 1.1906

 

Standard Deviation: .30208

 

Range of 1 Standard Deviation: (.89 - 1.49)

 

Skewness: .143

 

Kurtosis: .965

 

Analysis and Interpretation:

The range is 1.50 for which the minimum value is .40 and maximum value is 1.90. It shows a very high difference between minimum and maximum values. The mean is 1.1906 which means most of teachers agree that they could come out of the preconceived notion of expected answer and it can also be seen in the graph. Standard deviation is .30208 which indicates that most of the teachers scored between .89 and 1.49. Skewness is .143 which is slightly positively skewed i.e. the numbers of low scorers are slightly more than the number of high scorers. We can also see in the graph that the right tail is longer than the left one which indicates positive Skewness. Kurtosis is .965 with standard error .833 which shows that the distribution is moderately leptokurtic.

Conclusion:

There is diversity and range in the pre-service science teachers’ natural dispositions towards coming out of the preconceived notion of expected answer among learners in science. This range and diversity shows that while there may are teachers who are able to come out of their own expected answers from the learners, there are still teachers who need more attention. This contradicts pre-service science teachers’ preparedness towards addressing alternative frameworks among learners in science. A need to focus upon the skills and strategies related to the coming out of the preconceived notion of expected answer during pre-service science teachers’ education is identified.

References

  • Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt: Rinehart & Winston.
  • Bloom, J. W. (1990). Contexts of meaning: young children's understanding of biological phenomena. International Journal of Science Education, 12(5), 549–561. doi:10.1080/0950069900120507
  • . Routledge. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=Y1xetwAACAAJ&pgis=1
  • Stepans, J. (1994). Targeting students’ science misconceptions: Physical Science activities using the conceptual change model. Idea Factory, Incorporated.
  • Worth, K. (1999). The Power of Children’s Thinking (2nd ed.). Washington DC: National Science Foundation.

 

 

A STUDY OF ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING (ABL) IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS OF CHANDRAPUR DISTRICT

A Study of Activity Based Learning (ABL) in Primary Schools of Chandrapur District

Dr. (Smt.) S.S. Agrawal,
Associate Professor,
Janata College of Education,
Chandrapur, Maharashtra
Shobharani Adepu,
Research Scholar
Janata College Of Education,
Chandrapur, Maharashtra

 

Abstract
The objective of the study to compare effectiveness of the ABL method with traditional teaching method in primary level.  This study also aimed to reduce the burden and stress of teachers and students.  Our study focused on ways to improve the self confidence of students who are in the formative years to developmental stages of learning.
The investigator randomly selected two private primary schools of Chandrapur district. The investigator used self prepared activities to develop ABL and also for data collection.  The data collected this manner was analyzed using different statistical techniques.  The findings of this study revels that; Joyful teaching learning strategies arouse interest among the learners towards reading to great extent and Pair work and group work stimulate the learners to actively –involve in the program and it helps to achieve the competencies within a period of time.
Introduction
The Indian education system has set high constitutional goals of universalization of elementary education and education for all.  The Right to children to free and compulsory education Act of 2009.   ABL system has been mastered by the teacher and the pupils, the burden on the teacher and students reduced.  Even though the teacher needs a period of in learning and re-learning.  When moving from the conventional system to the ABL, the end result is very satisfying she is justifiable proud of his mastering the administration of the new system and of the children’s achievement.
The key feature of the ABL method is that it uses child friendly educational aids to foster self learning and allows a child to study according to his or her aptitude and skill.
The structure of the classroom and variety of activities can influence the potential for learning and interaction.  Similarly the lessons teacher plan and the way they execute their lessons helps to determine the effectiveness of the teaching process.
John F Kennedy said, that “physical fitness is not only one of the most keys to healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.
The teacher and students need to work in collaboration to make the teaching learning process very interesting and engaging.  Our experience on teaching various technical modules has taught us that student interaction and involvement are vital items in the transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the student.
At this juncture, we feel it is appropriate to present a very practical statement by Confucius on how the human mind approaches the learning process.
“Tell me, and I will forget
Show me, and I may remember,
Involve me, and I will understand.” Confucius
One of the best ways to understand something is to get ones hands on it and actually experiment with it.  In electronics this means putting small circuits together powering them up, and seeing first-hand what they do.  We also experience that when activities were given to the students their involvement and interest were substantially observed.  This is a tree data collection and experimenting and observing the innovative teaching methods.  Hence unanimously felt the need for a change in our mode of  teaching and learning as activity based teaching provides simple yet dynamic tools for an effective classroom teaching,. We believe that activity based teaching also taps into a source of energy and good will that would enable students to innovate and manage change.Tamil Nadu Government has introduced ABL from 2006-2007 up to the standard IV.  Previously his method was successfully introduced in Corporation Primary and middle schools of Chennai.
Objectives of the Study
Objectives of the study are
  1. To know the history and study the proper functioning of ABL with reference , 
  2. To analysis the style o functioning of ABL   
  3. To prepare constructivist approach module for the teaching of ABL at primary school level.   
  4. To compare effectiveness of the ABL teaching technique with traditional learning teaching in primary level. 
  5. To suggest necessary insets required for strengthening the ABL teaching method.  
Hypothesis
To realize the objectives Null Hypothesis were formulated.
  1. There is no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in the achievement of ABL at pre-test level. 
  2. There is no significant difference between the experimental group and control group in the achievement of ABL at post-test level.  
Methodology
To achieve the objectives of the present study, the experimental method was adopted.
Research Design
The design of present study was randomized groups, pre and post test design.  The investigator fixed a group taught through to ABL teaching method and the other by the traditional method.  In this study the experimental group was taught through ABL teaching method and thus was exposed to certain special experiences.  The control group was taught through the traditional method and was not receive any special treatment.
Finally researcher taught through the traditional method and conducted pre test.  Later on researcher taught though Activity Based Learning and also conducted posttest.
Sample
The sample of the study consists of 60 students studying in 4th standard of Central Board syllabus (CBSE) schools of Chandrapur district.

MD1

 

Thirty students consist in the experimental group, while the other students consist in the control group.  The sample included both boys and girls.

Table No. 1: Number of boys and girls in Experimental and Control group

Sl. No.

Boys

Girls

Total

Experimental Group

19

11

30

Control Group

19

11

30

Total

38

22

60


Explanation

For the purpose of sample 60 students of IV class were chosen which consists of 22 girls and 38 boys.  They were divided in two groups.  Group A (experimental group) consists 19 boys and 11 girls and Group B (Control group) consists at 19 boys and 11 girls.

These two groups were chosen in such way that they do not differ from each other in any significant respect expect by chance. The investigator fixed a group taught through the ABL teaching method and other by the traditional method.

In this study, the experimental group was taught through ABL teaching method and thus was exposed to certain special experiences. The control group was taught through the traditional method and was not receive any special treatment.

Firstly researcher taught through the traditional method and conducted pre-test. Later on researcher taught to the experimental group through the ABL method and conducted post-test.

Source and Nature of Data

To collect the data self prepared modules / activities were used by the researcher.  Considering the objectives of the research the lessons were taken by using the prepared activities by the researcher itself.

ABL class room observation

Each period of ABL class was for 45 minutes. In experimental Group, there were 30 students, Teacher divided the 30 students in to 5 groups, as A, B, C, D & E. In each group there were 6 students and group leader was appointed in each group respectively.

 

SR2


Group leaders were asked to pick out one subject card, according to the subject cards, researcher gave that particulars subject activities to that particular group.  These subject activities were repeated throughout the ABL class, and later on the subjects were exchanged among the groups and each group had to carry on the activities related to all the subjects later.

Tools and Activities used

In ABL class firstly, subject cards were introduced for e.g. English, Mathematics, Science, Social Science and Art and Craft.  In each subject activities in ABL subject cards (attributes) were indentified, for e.g. read, play, draw, write, search, think etc.

For Example:

In English, following activities were conducted

Observe: Picture No.1 and write 5 sentences about it.

SR_p1

Write:  write words by using these letters. Shown in the card Picture No. 2

Teacher asked to the students to write words by using these letters. Student wrote many words as possible as like name, meal, real, ear etc. This activity helped to increase thinking power. All students wrote new words.

p2

In Social Science following activities conducted

Write: Identify these soils and write these soils characteristics (Picture No. 3)

p3

Teacher showed the Soil samples and asked to the students, identify these soils and write any two characteristics. Students touched and observed the soils and wrote the characteristics according to the soils.

In Math’s following activities conducted

Do: Separate the mixed, unlike, like and unit fractions from these fraction cards

Read: Read the following fractions.  Students observed the fractions and read. In this way researches conducted activities in five subjects which were mentioned above.

Statistical Techniques

Data Analysis: The data was mainly analyzed in terms of mean and Standard Deviation calculated.  To find the level of significance, the t value also calculated.

Table 2 shows the Mean, SD and the difference between two Means.

TABLE No.2: Showing Mean and Standard Deviation for Experimental and Control Group

Sl. No.

 

Experimental Group

Control Group

1

No. of Children in each (N)

30

30

2

Mean Score of Pre-test

61.43

66.20

3

SD on Pre-test

11.16

11.76

4

Mean Score on Post – test

80.77 (M1)

68.53 (M2)

5

SD on final test (Post –test)

14.75 (SD1)

12.26 (SD2)

6

Gain, M1-M2

12.24

7

Standard errors of

mean, Post-test

3.27

3.46

8

t value of post-test

4.19

0.82

 

The table-2 shows the individual average (Mean) scores in the Pretest and posttest. The Pretest Mean for Group A 61.43 and for Group B is 66.20.  The post test mean for Group A(experimental) is 80.77 and for Group B (control) is 68.53.  The difference of Mean between the experimental group and control group for the Post test is 12.24 this shows that the Activity Based Learning is more effective and helps in development and understanding the concept and knowledge in students.Table-2 also reveals that the obtained t value of posttest (experimental group) is 4.19. It is significant at 0.01 level.The t value of posttest of control group is 0.82. It is not significant at 0.05 level.It is observed that Activity Based Learning method is more effective than the traditional method.

Findings

  • Joyful teaching learning strategies arouse interest among the learners towards reading to a great extent.
  • Pair work and group work stimulate the learners to actively involve in the program and it helps to achieve the competencies within a period of weeks.
  • Suitable selection of the text and its presentation in an activity based approach rate play, acting, creative thinking, drawing, experimenting etc facilitates easy grasp of the contents.

Suggestions

  • The class room teaching should be made joyful through activity based approach strategies.
  • Seek out and use student and ideas to guide lessons and wholes instructional units.
  • Promotes students leadership collaboration, location of information and taking action as consequence of learning process.
  • Encourage the students to challenge each other ideas and conceptualization.

Conclusion

The ABL methodology has been an instrument for change in many ways in our current elementary education system.It has able to create ways to allow students progress in these levels at their own developmental rate, not suffer from absenteeism and make the class room more child friendly.  It is important to understand that goal of universal primary education of high quality is the major focus while the methodology adopted is only a means to the end or the process for allaying the goal.  To this end it is important to glean the merits of different methodologies of instruction at elementary level and use them judiciously to achieve the goal of high quality primary education for all our country children. We  that feel activity- based teaching is a panacea which all of us to create time and space to enquire and analyze our work..

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activity-based_learning_in_India

http://chennaionline.com/Education/Articles/20134128024157/Be-active-with-ABL-Activity-Based-Learning.col

http://www.ssa.tn.nic.in/CurrActivities-A.htm

http://www.learnnc.org/ncpts/2009-PTS/PTS1/01/

http://www.ssa.tn.nic.in/Docu/ABL-Report-by-Dr.Anandhalakshmi.pdf

http://www.alternativeeducationindia.net/

http://www.unicef.org/india/education_1546.htm

http://www.ashanet.org/siliconvalley/asha20/pdfs/amukta_abl_tn.pdf

http://www.ole.org/content/activity-based-learning

http://www.esecs.ipleiria.pt/files/f1412.1.pdf

http://www.cry.org/resources/pdf/NCRRF/Prabha_Hariharan_2010_Report.pdf

http://www.tnschools.gov.in/images/stories/pdf/policy/policy_note_2013-14.pdf

http://www.teachersofindia.org/en/tags/activity-based-learning

http://edt.ite.edu.sg/papers/tcpast/tc05_paper/tc05_activity%20based.pdf

 
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