ISSN-2231 0495

Volume 1 || Issue 1 - Jan. 2011

Coping with Examination Anxiety and Stress

 

 

Coping with Examination Anxiety and Stress

Dr. Suman Dalal
Reader,
BPSMV,
Khanpur Kalan

Abstract

As March-April-May come, everybody gets worked up, especially parents, teachers, and students. Who amongst them are most affected is hard to say, because it differs, based on the mental makeup of each of them. This is the season of advice, which students get unsolicited from all corners. Caught in the vortex of the collective frenzy, any student will be at the end of his tie. This paper suggests the ways and means which are helpful for students to overcome this exam-phobia and face it calmly and confidently, and come out not just unscathed, but really victorious?

Key Words: Examination, Anxiety and Stress

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ध्यान का औपनिदैषिक एवं आध्यात्मिक स्वरूप

ध्यान का औपनिदैषिक एवं आध्यात्मिक स्वरूप

सुरेन्द्र प्रसाद रयाल

जयप्रकाश कसंवाल
राजकीय स्नातकोत्तर स्वायत्तशासी महाविधालय
ऋषिकेश, देहरादून

 

शोध संक्षेपिका

ध्यान एकाग्रता का प्रथम पड़ाव है अथवा एकाग्रता के अभ्यास से ध्यान प्रगाढ एवं सूक्ष्म होने लगता है दोनो ही तथ्य एक दूसरे के तथ्य हैं। आधुनिकता में योगभ्यास के अभ्यास का बोलबाला सर्वत्र है किंतु बिना ध्यान के अभ्यास एवं सफलता के बिना योगाभ्यास में पूर्णता सम्भव नही है। क्योंकि ध्यान प्रथम अवस्था में एक पड़ाव है जो हमें अपने आत्ममथंन, आत्मचितंन को अधिक गहराई से जानने का मार्ग प्रशस्त करता है, हम जितनी अधिकता से स्वयं के भीतर ध्यान के अभ्यास से झांकते चले जाते हैं उतनी ही अनंत सुषुप्त शक्तियों  को हम जान पाते हैं। यही आतंरिक शक्तियों  हमारी आध्यात्मिक एवं सासांरिक उन्नति का आधार होती हैं। ध्यान के अभाव में हम आतंरिक शक्तियों  को क्या अपितु सासांरिक कार्यकलापों को भी ठीक से नही कर पाते हैं। इस दृष्टि से एकाग्रता अथवा ध्यान का अभ्यास नियमित किया जाना  आवशयकता है |

भूमिका

वर्तमान समय का दौर अत्यधिक जीवन-सर्घष, प्रतिस्पर्धा एवं भागदौड़ भरा है जिसके कारण मनुष्य अनेकों मनो रोगों, तनाव, थकान आदि से भरे  हताशा  एवं निराशा के आलिगंन में जीवन यापन कर रहा है। इस तनावपूर्ण एवं मनोकायिक अवस्था से मुक्त होने के लिए आधुनिक चिकित्सा का सहारा लेना पड़ता है, किंतु योगाभ्यास के अतिरिक्त विश्व में अन्य ऐसी कोई दूसरी विद्या नही है जो कि मन को तनाव, भय अथवा चितांमुक्त कर सके। योग के अभ्यासों में ध्यान वह साधन है जिसके द्वारा मनुष्य इन समस्याओं एवं रोगों से सहज ही मुक्ति पा सकता है। और यह तभी  सम्भव है जबकि स्वयं मन के भीतर झांका जाये और इसके लिए ‘निरतंर मन के मनोभावों पर स्थिर’1 योगसूत्र बने रहने की  आवशयकताता है। यद्यपि मन के भीतर झांकना इतना सहज नही है इसके भीतर अवलोकन के लिए हठयोग साधना, राजयोग, भक्तियोग अथवा अन्य कोई साधना का अभ्यास करना अनिवार्य है। ‘अष्टांग मार्ग’ 2 योगसूत्र सबसे अधिक व्यावाहारिक मार्ग है क्योंकि इस मार्ग में सांसारिक यम-नियमों के अनुकरण व्यक्तिगत एवं सामाजिक बन्धनों का पालन किया जाता है तथा आसन, प्राणायाम, प्रत्याहार का अभ्यास  क्रमषः  शरीर एवं मन को स्थिरता प्राप्त करने लिए आधार प्रदान करता है। धारणा एवं ध्यान की अवस्था से पूर्व की स्थितियों में दृढ़ता आती है तथा अन्तिम समाधि की अवस्था मनुष्य सांसारिक चरणों से मुक्त होकर परमधाम को प्राप्त करता है।

ध्यान के अभ्यास में अथवा ध्यान की क्रिया में ‘मन विषय रहित होता है’ 3,4मैत्री, स्कन्द और मन का विषय रहित, विचार रहित  होना अत्यधिक कठिन कार्य है जिसके लिए पूर्व के अष्टागिंक मार्गो अथवा राजयोग, भक्तियोग, हठयोग आदि को अपनाना  आवशयकता है। जिसके द्वारा मन को विषय रहित किया जा सके है। और यह अभ्यास ध्यान के द्वारा ही सम्भव है क्योंकि ध्यान में जहां मन को विषय रहित करना है वहीं इससे पूर्व किसी भी विषय चाहे वह स्थूल हो अथवा सूक्ष्म पर पर लाना पड़ता जिसके धीरे धीरे अभ्यास से मन विषय रहित हो जाता है। जिसके लिए ‘सगुण-निर्गुणं ’5 शाण्डिलीयोपनिषद् ध्यान बताया गया है। सगुण अर्थात उन स्थूल वस्तुओं पर जिन पर मन सहजता से एकाग्र हो सके जैसे- ईष्ट देव, गुरू का ध्यान आदि तथा निर्गूण ध्यान वह है जिसमें सूक्ष्म विषयों पर एकाग्रता जैसे- आत्मा, प्राण, चक्र इत्यादि का अवलोकन किया जाता है। उपनिषदों में सांसारिक मुक्ति अथवा कैवल्य की प्राप्ती के लिए बार बार मन को विषय रहित करने के लिए कहा गया है जिसके लिए साधक को ऐसा अभ्यास करने की  आवशयकता है कि उसे स्वय ही ‘सृष्टि क्षणभंगुर नाशवान अथवा नकारा 6 योगकुण्डलीपनिषद् होने अनुभव हो सके। पौराणिक साधनाओं में जहां मुक्ति तथा मन के अनन्त रहस्यों के  रहस्योद्घाटन एवं सुषुप्त शक्तियों  को जानने के साथ आत्मावलोकन लिए ध्यान की  आवशयकताता है वही आधुनिक युग में मनोचिकित्सा में तनाव तथा चितांमुक्ति एवं भय, असुरक्षा की भावना के लिए इस क्रिया को अपनाये जाने की  आवशयकता बन रही है। वर्तमन में मनोचिकित्सक किसी भी प्रकार की मनोव्याधि के लिए रोगियों को लम्बी लम्बी काउसलिंग देते है यदि उन्हें ध्यान का नियमित अभ्यास करवाया जाये तो रोगी शीघ्र  ही मनोव्याधि मुक्त हो सकता है। उपनिषदकाल में सांसारिक बन्धनों की मुक्ति 7 जाबालदर्षनोपनिषद के लिए विशिष्ट रूप ध्यान के उपदेश  का विस्तृत वर्णन करते हुए कहा गया है कि ससांर कष्टों, दुःखों, द्वेष का सागर है और इनसे मुक्ति के लिए ध्यान करना अनिवार्य है।

भारतीय संस्कृति के अमुल्य धरोहर वेद, उपनिषद्, ग्रन्थ, शास्त्र  साहित्य इत्यादि निरंतर ‘मन के राग रहित’8 सांख्यदर्शन होने को ध्यान कहते है। किंतु मन तभी  रागरहित एवं विषय रहित हो पाता है जबकि पहले उसे किसी एक स्थान पर केन्द्रित कर लिया जाये इसके ‘तीन प्रकार के ध्यान’ 9घेरण्ड सहिंता बताये गये है जिससे साधक मन को धीरे धीरे स्थूलता से सूक्ष्मता तथा सूक्ष्मता से मन को र्निविषय की ओर ले जाने में समर्थ रहता है। इस क्रिया के लिए मन को संयम के साथ स्थूल तथा सूक्ष्म विषयों का चिन्तन एवं मनन निरंतर करते रहना पड़ता है तभी  ध्यान की अवस्था उपस्थित हो पाती है। इसीलिए ‘चिन्तन’ 10 गोरक्ष सहिंता करने को ही ध्यान स्वीकार किया गया है। इस चिन्तन मनन से जहां मन निर्विषय की ओर आता हुआ सांसारिक बन्धनों से मुक्त होकर ईष्वर दर्शन के लिए तैयार होता है वहीं इसके महत्व को सांसारिक दृष्टिकोण से ‘सहस्सा्रें अष्वमेघ, सैकड़ों वाजपेय यज्ञों’11 गो0स0 का फल प्रदान वाले से भी अधिक कहा गया है। ध्यान के अभ्यास से अष्टसिद्धी, आत्मलाभ, षट्चक्रों का जागरण जैसे अनेकानेन लाभों के बारे में हठयोग के प्रमुख ग्रन्थ गोरक्ष सहिंता के बारे में विस्तार से कहा गया है। योगविज्ञान का पूर्ण ज्ञान न होने पर  कुण्डलिनी षक्ति तथा अष्टसिद्धि जैसे आयामों का जागरण या इनके होने पर वर्तमान समय में सदेंह हो सकता है किंतु भारतीय ग्रन्थ तथ्यों के प्रमाण प्रस्तुत करते हैं। ध्यान के अभ्यास से पूर्व प्रत्याहार की अवस्था अभ्यास होती है जिससे कि ‘बर्हिमुखी इन्द्रियों से उत्पन्न दोष का निवारण’  12 अमृतनादोपनिषद् हो जाता है। यदि साधक को आत्मिक शुद्धि , आत्मदर्शन, ईष्वर को प्राप्त करने की इच्छा हो तो सर्वप्रथम सांसारिक गतिविधियों में लिप्त बर्हिमुखी मन को इन्द्रियों के द्वारा अन्र्तमुखी कर लेना परम आवशयक है। लौकिक ‘इन्द्रियों का विषयों के साथ सम्र्पक न होने पर चित्त निरूद्ध’ 13 योगसूत्र 2/54 हो जाता है। एक बार जब प्रत्याहार के अभ्यास से मन अन्र्तमखी हो जाये उसके पश्चात  ध्यान के अभ्यास से चित्त के क्लेषों को पूर्ण रूप से दग्ध किया जाता है। ‘ध्यानहेयास्तद्वृत्तयः ’ 14योगसूत्र 2/11 सूत्र से इस स्थिती का प्रामाणिक  शास्त्रीय  तथ्य मिल जाता है। इसी तथ्य को अमृतनादोपनिषद् ‘अनीष्वरीय गुणों का नाश ’15 अमृतनादोपनिषद्,8 वाले अभ्यास अथवा क्रिया को ध्यान कहते हैं।  शरीर में  चलने वाली श्वास जो निरंतर चलती रहती में अजपा जप की सूक्ष्म ध्वनि का यदि श्रवण कर लिया जाये तो मनुष्य योग के लक्ष्य समाधि को प्राप्त कर सकता है और इस लक्ष्य को साधने के लिए ‘सोऽहं बीज मन्त्र का चिन्तन मनन’ 16त्रिषिखीब्रह्मणोपनिष्द करना ध्यान है। यदि श्वास में इस अजपा जप मन्त्र के चिन्तन मनन में साधक स्वंय को रमा सके तो  शरीर में कहीं भी ‘मन को चैतन्य कर ध्यान’ 17 मण्डलब्रह्यणोपनिषद् के फल को प्राप्त को कर सकता है। ध्यान अभ्यास से भौतिक संसार के समस्त पापों का विनाश होने लगता है तथा आत्मज्ञान का प्रकाश होकर मनुष्य मोक्ष को प्राप्त करता है। इस प्रकार के ध्यान से साधक ‘‘समस्त माया की  निर्वत्ति’’ 18ष्वेताष्वतरोपनिषद्1/10 को प्राप्त करता है। तथा इस प्रकार की निवृत्ति से समस्त कलशों,  मृत्यु का अभाव होकर मनुष्य ‘‘विशुद्ध पूर्ण काम’’ 19ष्वेताष्वतरोनिषद1/11 हो जाता है।

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Last Updated on Tuesday, 07 October 2014 09:40

 

Educational Research in a Globalizing Society

Educational Research in a Globalizing Society

Dr.Baiju.K.Nath
Assistant Professor in Education
Department of Education, University of Calicut

Abstract

The twenty-first century demands a new set of  competencies, which includes not only ICT skills, but also such soft skills as problem solving, analytical skills, group learning, working in a team-based environment,  effective communication , etc. It is necessary to develop an effective programme for continuing education and skill upgrading to persons after they have left formal education in order to provide the changing skills necessary to be competitive in new global economy.Research skills such as Finding and finalizing a research problem, Observation, Data mining, Documentation, Handling technology, writing, Comprehensive outlook, etc. are some of the skills need to be mastered by every researcher.

Introduction

The present and future of research in education in Indian context may depend on how we frame and answer to queries on research from time to time. What determines the research priority? Is there a policy necessary for educational research? What programmes do have in linking research and researchers to social realities and demands? All these issues are to be addressed urgently.

The time is very opportune for India to make its transition to the knowledge economy—an economy that creates, disseminates, and uses knowledge to enhance its growth and development. The knowledge economy is often taken to mean only high-technology industries or information and communication technologies (ICTs). India should continue to leverage its strengths to become a leader in knowledge creation and use. To get the greatest benefits from the knowledge revolution, the country needs to reform and implement various policy and institutional changes needed to accelerate growth

Education is the fundamental enabler of the knowledge economy. Well-educated and skilled people are using knowledge effectively. The knowledge economy open up limitless opportunities together with countless warnings.   Strengthening intellectual property rights (IPRs) and their enforcement is one of the important area need to be addressed immediately. India has passed a series of IPR laws in the past few years, and their enforcement will be the key to its success in the knowledge economy.

Simplifying and expediting all procedures, through “single window” clearances will reduce time and cost as well as increase efficiency. The single window system adopted for admission to higher secondary courses in Kerala is an example for it. The same procedure can be replicated in other areas including higher education, must have benefits for the society. Hiring and sharing of personnel as well as resources also is the demand for potential changes.

Addressing capacity and quality constraints in improving public sector performance and effective utilization and proper management of private sector would enhance India’s competitiveness in the field of knowledge economy. Improving governance and encouraging the use of ICTs to increase government’s transparency and accountability.  ICTs can be for mo re effective in delivery of social services, especially in health and education,

Need for Skilled Researchers

The twenty-first century demands a new set of  competencies, which includes not only ICT skills, but also such soft skills as problem solving, analytical skills, group learning, working in a team-based environment,  effective communication , etc. These skills are now important for all especially teachers and researchers in education. Fostering such skills requires an education system that is flexible; basic education should provide the foundation for learning, and secondary and tertiary education should develop core skills that encourage creative and critical thinking. It is necessary to develop an effective programme for continuing education and skill upgrading to persons after they have left formal education in order to provide the changing skills necessary to be competitive in new global economy. The ways and means for all such novel changes should be pioneered by quality research studies.

It is viewed that India could not get the full economic benefit from the skilled educated people, because of the mismatch between education and the labor market. The professional workforce that is emerging from India’s higher education system often cannot find suitable employment. This is mainly due to a growing gap between the knowledge available to them and that required in real practice.   Limited job opportunities in their fields and low salaries are the other important factors affecting the proper utilization of the workforce that is available in India. Many professionals also leave the country in search of better opportunities, which leads to brain drain. The World Bank document (2005) calls for an urgent effort to promote policy and institutional reforms in scientific and technical education for both public and private institutions to improve the quality and skills of India’s current and future pool of technical manpower. “No country becomes a Super Power, unless common people are developed to the highest level of their competencies and capabilities, and empowered through tools and technologies of the age to enable them to participate in developments taking place all over. This can be achieved only through a right system of education for all” (Ram Takwale2003). Though e- learning is proposed as an effective alternative in this direction, there are mile to go. The most fascinating aspect of the present system is that, ICT breaks down all conventional rules of knowledge creation, dissemination and sharing. Another important fact is that the increase in the sources of information. Though ICT provides opportunity to express ones’ own thoughts easily, the quality and correctness need not be guaranteed. The tools available for education may be rapidly changing with the popularization of internet, mobile phone, iPod, FM radio, etc. New instructional technologies must be evolved to make use of such emerging tools of tomorrow.

All such aspects explore severe shortage of quality researches and research scholars in each sector, since a sector wise classification may not match for the future as things are going in favor of more comprehensive and holistic manner. Teachers have to play very vital role in making such changes effectively as they are playing the role of social engineers. Teachers' training brought changes in their perceptions and attitudes related to their general ideological beliefs concerning otherness, their professional role and their educational work (Magos, K. 2007). Teacher educators are dangerously close to losing jurisdiction over two key professional tasks--the preparation of new professionals and the production of academic knowledge for the profession. The need for researchers in teacher education to respond to such jurisdictional challenges by focusing on pressing policy issues regarding the preparation of teachers and by strengthening the quality of research (Grossman, P. 2008). Surely, the teacher educators are less oriented towards such changes, and thus facing challenges from different sections of the society.

Collaborations are getting priority in research, teaching, and learning and between researchers, teachers, and learners, in place of remaining as isolated islands. Developing high-quality human capital and advancing existing knowledge stocks are crucial for the competitive advantage of a nation. Offering postgraduate programmes that give great emphasis to academic rigour, managerial relevance and the triangulation of research methods is vital. .( Hui, L. T.&Fatt, Q. K. 2008) Practitioner (action) research and design-based research not only provide useful methodological frameworks that support the success of the workshop tutorials, but they also offer a worthwhile methodological strategy for fostering scholarly inquiry into university teaching and student learning. (Sharma,M.D.& McShane, K.2008 . Institutional efforts in engaging students in research activities and analyzes program features that are conducive to student engagement. (Hu, S; Scheuch, K.; Schwartz, R.; Gayles, J. G.; & Li, S., 2008). The demand for skilled research and researchers, and the need for a comprehensive policy on research also are vital for social and national development.

Research Skills in Globalising World

Research is the tradition of human beings. The progress attained by humanity is the best example for this tradition. Research is searching the ‘something’ within what surrounds us. Research is not a one time process. Usually researchers hunt for a problem when university calls for application for registration for any research degree or a journal call for papers. On the penultimate day, they will get one and submit the synopsis even without single rewriting is the general research behaviour, with few exceptions. People are mainly concerned with duration of submission of report and degree not quality research.

Research in a globalising world becomes a multicultural exercise. Learning when perceived as a cultural activity the implications of taking a cultural view, not of learning but of the research itself. (Postlethwaite,K. 2007). So, it is necessary for every body those who have an interest in the field of education and educational research must get updated with the changing scenario

Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising facts. This intellectual investigation produces a greater knowledge of events, behaviors, theories, and laws and makes practical applications possible. The term research is also used to describe an entire collection of information about a particular subject, and is usually associated with the output of science and the scientific method. (Wikipedia)

According to C. Wiidt: “Research is a method for discovery of new knowledge by which the present body of organized facts is augmented”. So generate new knowledge is the ultimate aim of research. Originality and creativity are at the core of research. A research work is primarily centered on emerging knowledge. The duty of a researcher is to create original knowledge from the static knowledge existed in the published world and to make a little bit own contribution.

But the problem with the emerging knowledge is that it is an unsettled area with much wider sweep. There will not be ready made answers or solutions, but the solutions should be emerged naturally by systematic process of analysis. Hence, it is highly significant to specify the research problem. Limiting research area to a specific problem at hand is a highly skilled act. The success in finalizing a research problem will crucially depend on identifying a small sector, in which a further shrinks in to a narrow strip.

Research does not have hard and fast rules. All decisions on problem, approach and judgment are temporary and for the time being and may need continuous changes, including sometimes going back to discarded ideas and postulations. This is natural, though painful sometimes, but need be manageable as it is very usual part of research. It is necessary for a researcher to brush up the basic knowledge corresponding to the problem currently at hand. The survival of a researcher depends on how s/he establishes fruitful relationships between existing knowledge and emerging knowledge.

Essential Research Skills

Micro teaching is a technique to develop teaching skills, similarly research skills also need to be trained and developed. Identification of necessary research skills will be the first task in this regard. The following skills such as Finding and finalizing a research problem, Observation, Data mining, Documentation, Handling technology, writing ,  Comprehensive outlook , etc. are some of the  skills need to be mastered by every researcher in a globalizing world.

Finding and Finalizing a Research Problem

Identifying a problem is one of the crucial inputs of any research work. Identifying the sources, availability, accessibility, prioritization, time schedule etc., together with motivation are important factors contribute to the success of research. To study about a problem thoroughly, collecting recent and classic research articles in the area will be the starting point. Read some of the papers having significance, as many times as possible to explore its’ different dimensions. Reading with sufficient note taking and reference keeping is essential. ‘What to read and How to read’ are the two important questions that should bear in mind at this stage. Asking creative questions criticizing the work is necessary to get an insight into the problem.  Background reading is the only scientific activity which guides to the origin of a problem. Read as many papers, research articles, dissertations, and reviews in the area of interest. A close analysis of vision, approach, and methodology should be made to get a clear picture of the research problem at hand. Generally, a period of six months is enough for background reading of a study in depth, but exceptions with complexity, and novelty of the problem area exists. During the course of reading you can prepare a preliminary outline of the working procedure, which can be finalized in due course and always keep a research diary. Finalizing a problem is the process of narrowing of thoughts generated by analyzing various ideas in its’ different dimensions, just like moving back from a large river to its point of origin.

Skill in Observation

Observation is perceived by most of us as incidental, a glance, or looking something which crosses our vision. Systematic observation is not incidental, but purposeful and scientific. To become a good observer one should taken care of different aspects of observation such as  , planning , mode of observation,  materials required, procedure , schedule of observation, etc.

Preparing a plan for observation is the first step in an observation. A well prepared plan should answer the following four questions. ‘What to observe? Why to Observe? How to observe? and, When to observe?’ Practicing observation before actual observation will be helpful to familiarize with the procedure of observation, problems that may happen while observing, and to identify and eliminate practical difficulties in actual observation. This can be done during familiar and less intellectual situations. How to record observations is an important task in getting relevant data in quality and quantity. So the devices for optimizing observation such as Audio/ video recording instruments, observation schedules, or observers are to be getting ready before commencement of actual observation session. If any other person is entrusted for video recording, necessary instructions should be given in advance on activities need to be focused. An observation diary is an essential document for recording plans and preparations and important observations.

Skill in Data Mining

Data mining may be confused with data collection some times, but the latter is the collection of vital data according to formulated procedure using selected tools. Data mining is comprehensive action, which can be termed as the sum total of identifying relevant information required for the successful completion of research work, since identifying and finalizing research problem through the final research report preparation. The procedure for data mining is significant, because of the richness in variety of sources in which relevant data getting dispersed. ‘Identifying the sources’ will be the first task in data mining. the general sources of information include experts in field, authentic books, reputed journals & periodicals, theses & dissertations,  reliable websites, programmes in mass media including electronic media, and all the most your own mind. The second task is ‘selection of appropriate sources’ from the available ones, in terms of accessibility, and utility. Once you have identified the sources, preparation of an ‘outline’ and a ‘work schedule’ is the next task. Outline should involve the type and nature of data, level, & period of the work, relevance, authenticity, and reference. Outline of study can be prepared on quarter sheets and separate sheets can be used for recording each study. Work schedule is the time schedule the one which determines timely and successful completion of the work. While digging a well for water there is a saying, the work must continue on everyday until water level reaches, which is also applicable to researchers and research. A researcher must work at least for half an hour daily until reaches the final destiny. The more time you can spent the better the results can be. While allocating the work schedule, try to put some time in the early morning, because the thoughts you have in the morning should have a carry over effect on the whole day and the distracters may be less in number in early morning. If it is difficult, spot the best suited time, but that time should be managed every day only for research purpose without interruption. If you have to travel some distance daily you can locate sometime during the journey. Keep a scribbling pad to note down those ideas flashed in the mind, because they will vanish as they came.

‘Managing distractions’ is the most difficult task while data mining from various resources. Distractions can be of many forms even as the time and place that you have chosen for working. But most of the distracters are hiding in electronic especially, web based materials. Beware of distractions in the form of unwanted “free”, e- mails, alerts, free shopping, Advertisements, etc., available online.

Skill in Documentation

Documentation is an important aspect of research. Documenting references, titles, reviews, contact address, schedule of programmes, list of resources and experts, forms, formats and orders, etc. are inevitable for systematic research. Systematic documentation ensures easy retrieval of essential documents without much effort. The practice being popular now a day is to store every thing in the computer hard disk. This is suicidal by a virus attack or system failure. At least take copies of all relevant materials in print / written or in CDs. E. mailing essential materials into your own e. mail account is another feasible alternative for those who greatly depend on technology for documentation. The conventional filing system is worth even at this age of technology explosion. Even in computer, it is necessary to follow filing system by creating separate folders for list of journals, websites, registration details, submission of research paper details, etc. within a common folder ‘Research’. It is also necessary to name the files with respect to its content straight away after downloading. Other wise, searching necessary details from the documents already downloaded will eaten up a lot of time. The correct source of the data also must be recorded at the end of each item.  Source cards & Note Cards are very useful for documentation of references and relevant details respectively. A source card can be prepared by quarter sheet of an A4 sheet, meant for recording the sources of reference. A single reference alone should be written on a source card. The source cards should be tagged and can be easily rearranged in any order, say alphabetical, without re writing, hence are time savers while preparing the final report. Note cards can be prepared out of half of an A4 sheet, in which necessary details of a study or report relevant to the present study can be recorded, by specifying year and author. Note cards also are time savers as it can be easily rearranged without rewriting for final report.

An updated research diary may be helpful in this context, involving all thoughts and experiences and communications on research in the specified area.

Skill in Handling Technology

What takes place in online learning, teaching environments is shaped by the logics and practices of technologies, and their role in the production of new consumer cultures (Saltmarsh, Sue; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy; Kitto, Simon 2008) signifies this skill as contextual. Handling Technology is a comparatively new skill to be mastered by any researcher since it is the demand of the time. Books, Journals, Periodicals, Computer, presentations, CDs, Web based, Broad casts- audio & multimedia, Podcasts, Mobiles and many more materials are technology driven, and hence need proficiency for meaningful utilization. Much of the learning in technology education is hands-on and best assessed via techniques other than traditional tests. Rubrics have become increasingly recognized as the best means of evaluating student efforts and accomplishments in projects, group work, presentations, various types of research papers, videotapes, web pages, and many other learning activities and products typical of the contemporary technology classroom (Haynie, W. J., III 2008).

The experience consists of a didactical proposal through which we intend to establish connections and interdisciplinary relationships among courses, in order to break down the isolation that usually characterizes the work of university teachers, and move towards a more global and complex formula for curriculum development. We also propose the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as tools to support the learning process and expand opportunities for reflection, dialogue and collaboration beyond the classroom activities (Garcia, Leonor Margalef; Roblin, Natalie Pareja 2008)

Skill in Writing

How to communicate effectively the research findings is the most important task of any research work. Timely and proper dissemination of research findings is the dream of every researcher. In order to communicate effectively one should have mastered the skill in writing a research paper or article. Since writing is the last step, it is necessary to prepare a schedule for drawing out the best from your work. The schedule can be prepared by backward counting. Spare at least one hour per page for writing your first draft, two hours for revising per page, one day to organize and one day to prepare the final material. Try to view your work as holistic as possible before you start writing. The general outline of any article should follow the principle of, ‘Tell the reader what you are going to say, say it, and tell what you told’. This view in mind prepares a preliminary outline at first, leave it, and forget it for a day. Develop the preliminary outline to an elaborate final one by addition, deletion, and rearrangement of ideas contained in it in view of comprehensiveness in content as well as mechanical features. Write the first draft, by exploring ideas in clear and orderly fashion. Forget it for at least one day and have some music, game or other entertainment activities.

Become a critique of the draft on content, organization, and style, mechanical details like, grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence fragments, and subject verb agreement, etc. Read it aloud, it feels some terms or usages meaning less or confusing in loud reading, which will be helpful for more clarity. Spot those portions / words/ phrases need clarity with colored pencils. Judge the content for the target readers. Verify the style for specificity, use of vivid words, varying sentence structure, use of interesting comparisons, simple words, and avoiding over formal writing. Revising one’s own work is most tiresome. While organising care should be given to include a topic sentence in each Para, which express the central idea of the article, examine the analytic and reporting features of research articles cited in "Studying Teacher Education: The Report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education" (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005) that used quantitative reporting practices Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.2008)

Skill In Comprehensive Outlook

Comprehensive outlook is a skill to be mastered for the present because it will be the future. Comprehensiveness becomes the growing necessity in a globalizing world. Playing video games improve surgical skills in doctors doing micro surgeries is proved. The sources of information and tools of learning became so diverse to breakdown all conventional conception. Design text books in such a way to facilitate multi disciplinary instruction should be an effective boost for developing comprehensiveness in pupils as well as teachers. The concept of Basic education, which was wrongly perceived due lack of comprehensive outlook to mere starting of vocational courses shows a striking example for the necessity of comprehensiveness. For example a seminar on Environmental awareness , having so many presentations on misuse of plastics and demanding the ban of the item , supplying tea and water in plastic cups and bottles for the participants ,because of the lack of a  comprehensive vision on what we are doing.  Comprehensiveness begins with a vision that is rooted in philosophy. It is very important to have a vision for research also in a globalizing world, and rapidly changing society. Here the vision does not mean the aim of the study, but the impact of the research for sustainable future. A scientist without the knowledge of the needs and aspirations of the society can never be socially productive, as the case may be of a teacher and a researcher. So we need researchers from those who are working in every field, instead of a separate group designated as researchers. Over specification, and compartmentalisation are going to have an end. The forth coming era of research will demand more collaborative, constructive, interdisciplinary, and comprehensive sphere of knowledge creation in a rapidly shrinking global village.  Common themes were found in each country and implications for addressing the problem considered are also common (Clark, Mary Ann; Thompson, Paul; Vialle, Wilma 2008). Syntheses of research on educational programs have taken on increasing policy importance. Procedures for performing such syntheses must therefore produce reliable, unbiased, and meaningful information on the strength of evidence behind each program. (Slavin, Robert E 2008). Stronger connection to research on teaching could inform the content of teacher education, while a stronger relationship to research on organizations and policy implementation could focus attention on the organizational contexts in which the work takes shape. (Grossman, Pam; McDonald, Morva 2008). Recent restructuring of research funding for New Zealand's higher education institutions is "outputs-driven." Under the Performance Based Research Fund, units of assessment of research quality are individuals,( Middleton, Sue 2008). The research agenda of the Australian government and the massification and diversity of the Australian research student population demand new ways of conceptualizing the research curriculum, and in particular, call for flexibility and a holistic view (Engebretson, Kath; Smith, Ken; McLaughlin, Denis; Seibold, Carmel; Terrett, Gill; Ryan, Elizabeth 2008). The global concern in this regard should be taken up by all researchers, and research institutions in India.

Conclusion

Research in education is at crossroads, hence it is the duty of researchers and teachers together bring about strategic changes in the field of educational research with global vision based on local needs.

References

Clark, M.A. et.al. (2008)Examining the Gender Gap in Educational Outcomes in Public Education: Involving Pre-Service School Counsellors and Teachers in Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Research International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 30 ,1 ,52-66 March

Grossman, P. (2008)Back to the Future: Directions for Research in Teaching and Teacher Education American Educational Research Journal, 45 ,1, 184-205

Hu, S. ,et.al.(2008). Reinventing Undergraduate Education: Engaging College Students in Research and Creative Activities ASHE Higher Education Report, 33 ,4 ,1-103 .

Magos, K. 2007. The Contribution of Action-Research to Training Teachers in Intercultural Education: A Research in the Field of Greek Minority Education.Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 23, 7, 1102-1112 october

Ram Takwale (2003). Challenges and opportunities  of Globalisation for Higher Education in India – Alternatives through e – education . UGC - Golden jubilee lecturers .

Saltmarsh, S , et.al (2008) Technographic Research in Online Education: Context, Culture and ICT Consumption .Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 36 ,3, 179 -196 August

Slavin, R. E .(2008) Perspectives on Evidence-Based Research in Education--What Works? Issues in Synthesizing Educational Program Evaluations. Educational Researcher, 37, 1 , 5 -14

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