ISSN-2231 0495

Volume 4 || Issue 4 - July 2014

Studying the Science Learning Contexts While the Topic/Area of Explorations was ‘UNIVERSE’

Studying the Science Learning Contexts While the Topic/Area of Explorations was ‘UNIVERSE’

Rakesh Kumar

Assistant Professor

MV COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,

University of Delhi.

Abstract

Present study aims at studying the science learning contexts while the topic/area of explorations was ‘UNIVERSE’. The study reveals that the teacher observed that the  learners  were  interested  in  group discussions and group activities; the learners were eager  to  know  something  more  than  the  text book; teacher should use other reference books and resources; teacher also used learners’ experience which was good; all teachers should use learners' experiences to explain the topic and should satisfy the learner; Learner should also use other resources  like  internet. More exploration of the learners’ questions like,-“How moon rotates? What is Moon? What does surface of Moon look like? How much time does it take to complete one rotation? Is there water on Moon? What is the actual size of Moon? What is universe?” may be needed. Many possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks have also been revealed through learners’ diagrams. E.g. “All paths of rotation are circular in nature; notion of changes in the shape of moon; Has moon two sides-front and back”. These type of diagrams can be considered by the teacher to be starting point of their explorations of the learners’ Alternative Frameworks.

Key Words: Teaching-Learning contexts, Universe, Alternative Frameworks, network of conceptions, learners’ questions, learners’ diagrams

 

1. Introduction

“The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly”

(Ausubel, 1968)

(Worth, 1999) in ‘The Power of Children’s Thinking’ thinks of children as natural scientists and posits that, “They do what scientists do, but perhaps for some slightly different and less conscious reasons. They are anxious to understand the world just as adults are or one can say even better than them. There is a terribly interesting, but rather confusing, world full of stimuli all around them. Many adults, however, have learned to ignore some of that world rather than investigate it. Young children ignore very little” (Worth, 1999). The curiosity of children is many times evident in the questions that they ask. Since children are more curious and receptive than usual adults. Instead of idealised world of scientific theories, they weave. The web of their understanding from the exploration of messy world around them and this is with what a child enters the school.

“Moreover when children start school and throughout their school years, they already have pre-formed ideas about how the natural world works. These ideas may come from within the instructional setting or from their experiences outside of school. Research has shown that teaching is unlikely to be effective unless teachers and curriculum materials take into account learners’ preconceptions” (Driver, Squires, Rushworth, & Wood-Robinson, 1994). When asked ‘What causes the phases of the moon? Why does season change?’ Learners do come up with some answers, even though they have not had any such discussions with elders, says  (Weiler, 1998).

“Some call these early ideas that children form as Alternative Frameworks; others label them naive conceptions, or alternative conceptions. Alternative Frameworks might also be referred to as preconceived notions, non-scientific beliefs, naive theories, mixed conceptions, or conceptual misunderstandings. Basically, in science these are cases in which something a person knows and believes does not match what is known to be scientifically correct. These terms identifying similar mismatches are used interchangeably in this study and are referred to as Alternative Frameworks” (Worth, 1999).

Karen Worth further argues that “a child is not going to give up his theory made by so much effort and observations just because an adult disapproves it or a single event challenges it. Children do not want to give up the concepts and theories they work so hard to make. They take their experiences and struggle to come up with understandings that work in their daily lives. They are not about to drop their ideas just because someone says so, or because an event disproves what they have come to believe. As anyone familiar with the history of science can attest, even adults have trouble changing theories that are well grounded in experience. If a child's theory works, if it has been productive and the child has worked hard to build that theory, he/she will not give it up unless he/she has a lot of new experiences that provide reasons to do so” (Worth, 1999). “Learners’ conceptions change progressively as they are exposed to additional relevant information in higher grades” (Lee, 2007).

“The term alternative conception is used to mean learners’ ideas, manifested after exposure to formal models or theories, which are still at odds with those currently accepted by the scientific community” (Boo, 1998). There is however a clear cut difference between the terms alternative conceptions and alternative framework. This difference is related with the consistency of using an alternative conception in more than one context. “When an alternative conception is used with consistency over more than one context or event, it is referred to as an alternative framework” (Boo, 1998).

2. Need of Study:

Alternative Frameworks have many serious concerns attached with their presence and something especially concerning about them is that we, at all stages of our development, continue to build further knowledge on our current understandings. This development of learning would be seriously impacted if there are Alternative Frameworks at their core (Black, 2006). “Specifically, the major concerns involve identifying (a) potential underlying beliefs that may influence the construction of concepts, (b) cognitive processes that contribute to the construction of concepts and meaning, (c) variables that affect conceptual development, and (d) variables that may influence the construction of meaning” (Bloom, 1990).

The following effort is directed to the issue of identification of possible sites of Alternative Frameworks and explorations of the teaching  learning  contexts  in which these have been explored has been drawn from the reflections and analysis of the teachers teaching them.

3. Research Methodology

3.1 Research Questions and Objective

The following questions are focussed:

  • How do science learners perceive their natural classroom environment while a topic UNIVERSE is being undertaken?
  • What are the possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks when the topic UNIVERSE is taken up in the classroom?
  • What questions come to learners’ mind when the topic UNIVERSE is taken up in the classroom?

The study has focused on the following objectives:

  • Exploring teaching learning contexts in science classrooms, with special reference to topic UNIVERSE being undertaken.
  • Identifying possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks when the topic UNIVERSE is taken up in the classroom (if any).
  • Identifying the questions that come to learners’ mind when the topic UNIVERSE is taken up in the classroom.

3.2 Methodology, sample and tools:

Methodology: 

The researcher came to the understanding that there might be many more possibilities of formation of Alternative Frameworks in the life experiences of science learners that might need deep probing. For this, the science learning experiences were explored to locate potential sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks. Based on understanding developed from the review of related literature and researcher’s own experience as science teacher/teacher educator, a comprehensive tool was developed by the researcher. This tool related to different issues related to different areas of the teaching-learning processes in science.

These 38 Pre-Service science teachers who are the B.Ed. students of the two of Education in Delhi, India) were chosen as convenient samples for the study. Most of the observations, interpretations, analysis and reflections done by the participants were discussed with them also to develop their insight about their own science classrooms. These 38 prospective science teachers of the two colleges (MV College of Education and GRD College of Education in Delhi) who were chosen as samples for the study have henceforth been addressed as science teachers. These science teachers were also a connection to reach to the science learners in the schools. Thus an input from the science classrooms was available to the teachers during their school life experience program. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program.

A tool described in later part of the study tool was used on these 38 pre-service teachers. But the data from 30 pre-service science teachers was collected in the form of self-assessment feedback regarding 592 Science lessons transacted by them during their school life experience program. 8 Pre-service teachers became non-responding. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program as described later. Training of teachers was done for both data collection (one day) and analysis (three days). In addition, two days were devoted for reflection and discussion on resolution of the problems faced during the process.

Sample

Total 38 Pre-Service Science teachers participated from two B.Ed. colleges of University of Delhi and GGSIP University, Delhi. This “ensured participation of total 18 schools in which above Pre-Service teachers had their School Life Experience Program. These teachers had diverse graduation and post-graduation subjects.

Figure 1 - Classification of teachers’ sample

Figure_1
 
 

Figure 2 - Classification of School sample

Figure_2

Notations: G- Government; P- Private; G.A.-Government Aided; K.V.-KendriyaVidyalaya

 

Out of total 38 Pre-Service teachers, code numbers 1.01 to code number 1.30 were given to 30 Pre-service teachers from Guru Ram Dass College of Education and 8 Pre-Service teachers from Maharishi Valmiki College of Education received code numbers 2.01 to code number 2.08. Clearly, the sample is not a random sample but a purposive one. Although no deliberate attempt was made for the sample to be homogeneous or representative, it got addressed in the process to some extent. The science teachers belonged to different socio-economic backgrounds. The science learners’ belonged to different sorts of school settings. These types of schools included all boys’ school, all girls’ schools, government, government aided and public schools. Therefore, we can say that different socio-economic backgrounds and diversity in teaching-learning settings has been represented largely in the sample.

3.3 Tools for data collection

In the review of the available tools, it was identified that these tools cannot be used in order to collect required data for the present study or in other words, suitable tools for getting the relevant data could not be located. Thus, in order to explore teaching learning contexts in science classrooms with respect to possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks among learners in science, a tool was thus developed in the form of a questionnaire. The major themes of the questionnaire include exploration about the resources that the learners tend to tap, their preferred learning styles, possible sites of Alternative Frameworks, their notion about themselves as science learners etc.

To validate the tools, the First draft of tools was given to experts namely school teachers, and colleagues in teacher education institutions, and ambiguous language and other issues resolved and the items modified subsequently.

In the questionnaire filled by the science learners in different schools in Delhi, the question number six was ‘Mention the question you asked/wanted to ask’. In order to analyse these questions, the researcher categorized the questions in the response to this question in terms of the topics/areas they represent. Originally 449 questions were received from the science learners.  After removing repetitions, 17 areas finally emerged out of these questions as categories. In the questionnaire filled by the science learners in different schools in Delhi, the question number thirteen was ‘What figures, diagrams and scientific terms did you use? Please draw/write it.’ On this question total 908 diagrams and figures were received and were grouped according to the concept represented in them. In each of the groups the analysis follows regarding the concepts depicted and possible sites of alternative framework. In the study, the questions asked by them were also explored. This part along with the preceding one constitutes the breeding ground of Alternative Frameworks amongst learners in science that will need deep probing to start the journey of addressing them. Also it is to be noted that this approach can guide the science teachers to assist learners in moving towards scientific conceptions that are at the heart of science learning by identifying the point of start. The analysis of figures and diagrams made and terms used by science learners was analysed to identify following sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks that will further deep probing for understanding of their context.

3.4 Collection of data:

The questionnaire prepared by the researcher and vetted by two eminent scholars was used for the collection of data. This questionnaire was distributed to more than 1207 learners of science (as described in the Figure 3) studying in classes sixth to tenth across Delhi and received from total 979 learners. These schools catered to the needs of a diverse population. Some particular topics were under focus in various schools (due to the schedules fixed by the educational structure) at the time when data from school was collected. Thus, some topics got more coverage in the study than the others as the topics under discussion were not in researcher’s control.

 

 

Figure 3 - Classification of science learners

Figure_3


The questionnaire for science learners containing total 17 items was given after transaction of 12 to 15 lesson plans and collected on the same day itself by the science teachers. The primary task of analysing and reflecting on these questionnaires filled up by the science learners was given to the science teachers so that they are able to make linkages with their own classrooms in their particular contexts, which is not possible for the researcher to make. Science teachers were given about 10 days for this task. This analysis and reflection was summarized by the researcher and analysed to see patterns, exceptions and other aspects. Two of those 17 questions from the questionnaires filled up by the science learners were analysed by the researcher. These two questions were related to ‘questions that are coming to the mind of the science learner’ and second the ‘figures, diagrams and scientific terms used’ by the science learner. While the former was analysed to understand the nature of questions that are coming to the science learners mind, the latter was analysed to identify the concepts depicted and the possible sites of Alternative Frameworks (if any).

4. Analysis of Data

Questions from the questionnaires filled up by the science learners were analysed in two ways.

(a)        The first and the primary analysis was done by their own science teachers, that are discussed in part

(b)        Two questions i.e. question number six and number 13 were analysed by the researcher only. Question number six was related to the questions that come to the students’ mind while the teacher was transacting a particular lesson on a topic from their curriculum and question numbered 13 was related to the figures and diagrams made and terms used by the science learners. The study includes only the analysis from these two questions.

In order to analyse these questions, the researcher categorized the responses to question no. 6 of the questionnaire in terms of conceptual areas. Originally 449 questions were received from the science learners. After identifying repetitions, 17 broad conceptual areas of questions finally emerged. These questions along with the topic have been reported in the study. On the response to Question number 13 a total of 908 diagrams and figures were received and were grouped according to the concept represented in them. These were analysed with two major focuses namely the concepts and the keywords representing the possible sites of Alternative Frameworks. These two have been reported along with the original diagrams and figures drawn by the science learners in the study. In order to meet the ethical standards, the names and identifiable information of the science learner has not deliberately been put on the figures and diagrams. But the questionnaire responses filled up by every learner was coded so that the linkage with the sheet can be made without having to identify the personal information of the science learner and is imprinted on every diagram and figure.

The type of questions posed by the learners are questions from activity done in the class, conceptual queries, dilemmas, from their own observations around them, basic questions that are definitional in nature, queries that require reasoning and arguments, exploratory questions requiring experimenting, questions projecting Alternative Framework sites etc. Table 1 shows the details of the teacher and the leaner along with the topic/area that emerged from the natural settings as described above.

Table 1 - Details of emerging topics/areas along with teachers and learners on possible sites of alternatives frameworks

37_table1


5. Results

5.1 Teaching-Learning Contexts:

The teacher observed that the  learners  were  interested  in  group discussions and group activities; the learners were eager  to  know  something  more  than  the  text book; teacher should use other reference books and resources; teacher also used learners’ experience which was good; all teachers should use learners' experiences to explain the topic and should satisfy the learner; Learner should also use other resources  like  internet.

Analysis of questions asked:

5.2 Questions asked related to the topic/area ‘Universe’

37_table2



5.3 Diagrams

diagram_1




diagram_2


diagram_3


diagram_4

diagram_5

diagram_6

diagram_7

diagram_8

diagram_9

diagram_10

diagram_11

diagram_11

diagram_12

diagram_13


5.4 Possible sites of Alternative Frameworks from analysis of figures and diagrams made by science learners

Solar System:

  

 

 

 
  1. All paths of rotation are circular in nature. (Diagrams-1.24.1-1,1.24.8- 1,1.24.18-1)
  2. Changes in the shape of moon
  3. Has moon two sides-front and back

6. Conclusions:

The study reveals that during or after the teaching learning processes related to the topic UNIVERSE following represents the learners’ framework - The teacher observed that the  learners  were  interested  in  group discussions and group activities; the learners were eager  to  know  something  more  than  the  text book; teacher should use other reference books and resources; teacher also used learners’ experience which was good; all teachers should use learners' experiences to explain the topic and should satisfy the learner; Learner should also use other resources  like  internet. More exploration of the learners’ questions like,-“How moon rotates? What is Moon? What does surface of Moon look like? How much time does it take to complete one rotation? Is there water on Moon? What is the actual size of Moon? What is universe?” may be needed. Many possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks have also been revealed through learners’ diagrams. E.g. “All paths of rotation are circular in nature; notion of changes in the shape of moon; Has moon two sides-front and back”. Comparative analysis of Data related to the Possible Sites of Alternative Frameworks shows that “Changes in the shape of moon” is one of the observed Alternative Framework in the study. Similar misconception was observed by (Driver, R., Squires, A., Guesne, E., Tiberghien, 1985) as “The shape of the moon changes because the shadow of Earth falls on the moon.” (Blizak, F. Chafiqi, 2009) found that there is no change in learners’ misconceptions after 20 years of research concerning light and optical phenomena. They also noted that the misconceptions, which have been found in earlier studies, also exist in the understanding of present day learners. They found some new misconceptions like ‘light propagates in the horizontal direction when the Universe doesn’t exist’. We can therefore use some of the research done at one place in one classroom situation, in another classroom situation too. 

References:

  • Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt: Rinehart & Winston.
  • Black, S. (2006). Is Science Education Failing Students? American School Board Journal, (November), 48–51.
  • Blizak, F. Chafiqi, and D. K. (2009). Students Misconceptions about Light in Algeria. Optical Society of America.
  • Boo, H. K. (1998). Students’ understandings of chemical bonds and the energetics of chemical reactions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(5), 569–581.
  • Driver, R., Squires, A., Guesne, E., Tiberghien, A. (1985). Children’s Ideas in Science. Open University Press.
  • Lee, M. (2007, November). High School Students’ Alternative Ideas about Chemical Bonding. Dr. Foley. SED 690.
  • Weiler, B. (1998). Children’s misconceptions about science. Operation Physics. American Institute of Physics. Http://amasci. Com/miscon/opphys. Html (accessed March 26, 2007).
  • Worth, K. (1999). The Power of Children’s Thinking (2nd ed.). Washington DC: National Science Foundation.


 

Awareness of RTE Act 2009 among Newly Recruited Teachers of Residential Schools

 

Awareness of RTE Act 2009 among Newly Recruited Teachers of
Residential Schools
Dr. Asha K.V.D. Kamath
Associate Professor
Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Ajmer.

Abstract

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 is a progressive step taken by the Government of India to provide elementary education to all the children between the age of 6-14 years. The Act is enacted by the government and there are many stakeholders who are directly or indirectly responsible for execution of the Act. Teachers are a group of people who are directly responsible in its successful implementation. This is more so for the teachers of residential schools as they are in close contact with the children and the community. As RTE is a recent policy, unless the teachers are aware of it and understand their responsibilities, it is difficult to achieve the goals of the RTE Act. Therefore, it was felt necessary to study the awareness of newly recruited teachers on the RTE Act. The sample of the study was a group of 37 trained teachers who were newly recruited for residential schools and were undergoing Induction Training Programme in one of the cities of southern India. The tool was a Questionnaire with 25 items of multiple choice type prepared by the Investigator on RTE Act,2009. Mean, SD and t- values were calculated. The study revealed that the awareness level on RTE Act of newly recruited teachers of residential schools is not satisfactory. There is significant difference between Male and Female teachers on the awareness of RTE Act 2009. Male teachers have a higher level of awareness than Female teachers. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness on RTE Act between Graduate and Post Graduate teachers as well as teachers with Arts and Science streams. As the sample was too small, the above findings cannot be generalized. However, it helps   in understanding the status of awareness level of the teachers on RTE Act.

Introduction

Population is one of the important resources of any country. Development of a country depends on the quality of its human resource. One of the indicators of quality human resource is education. Considering the importance of education Government of India enacted the Right of Children Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009 (RTE Act) which is being implemented from 1st April 2010. The Act contains 38 Sections as well as a Schedule for Norms and Standards for Schools. It is the responsibility of all the stake holders to see that the Act is implemented in its true spirit. Therefore, it is essential that the authorities, parents, teachers, students and even community know about the RTE Act and cooperate in its implementation.

A few studies have been reviewed by the Investigator which indicates that there is a need to develop awareness among the teachers on recent developments in the field of education.

Nirmala (2011) in her study on Curriculum for Professional Development of Teachers opined that teacher education must become more sensitive to the emerging demands from the school system.

Kamath (2010) in her article on Responsibilities of schools in the light of RTE Act, discussed about major responsibilities of schools and teachers as reflected in the Act like, providing free and compulsory elementary education, no capitation fee, no screening procedure, admission to class appropriate to the age of the child, no physical punishment or mental harassment, completion of entire curriculum.

Rai (2012) in the paper titled ‘Challenges in implementing RTE Act’ states that the budget for implementation of the RTE Act throughout the country is just half of the amount spent on the 2010 Commonwealth Games. So, funds are not a major problem.

These studies show that teachers must be familiar with the needs of the schools as well as their responsibilities. As finance is not considered to be a major problem, the implementation of RTE mainly lies with all the stakeholders of education and to a large extent with the teachers.

In any school, teachers form a link between the students and the parents. In residential schools teachers play multiple roles. They are in close contact with the students and their academic as well as all round development depends mainly on the teachers. As the RTE Act ensures quality elementary education, protection of Rights of Children, Community participation etc., it is necessary to know to what extent the teachers of residential schools are aware of the Act so that they can contribute to its execution and understand their responsibilities as teachers and as responsible members of the society in providing quality schooling to every child of the school going age.

Objectives of the study

The objectives of the study were as follows.

  • To find the awareness on RTE Act among newly recruited teachers.
  • To compare the level of awareness on RTE Act between Male and Female teachers Graduate and Post Graduate teachers.
  • To compare the level of awareness on RTE Act between  Teachers with Arts and Science streams.

Hypotheses of the study

The following were the hypotheses of the study.

  • There is no significant difference in the level of awareness on RTE Act between   Male and Female teachers
  • There is no significant difference in the level of awareness on RTE Act between  Graduate and Post Graduate teachers
  • There is no significant difference in the level of awareness on RTE Act between  Teachers with Arts and Science streams

Methodology

The study was survey type and the data was collected by administration of Questionnaires to the teachers.

Sample: The sample of the study was a group of 37 newly recruited teachers (Male=22; Female=15) for one of the chains of residential schools of India. They were all trained teachers and undergoing Induction Training Programme in one of the schools in southern India. Detail of the sample is given in Table 1.

Table 1-Sample of the Study

 

 

Gender

Total

Grand Total

Male

Female

Educational Level

Graduate

07

06

13

37

Post Graduate

15

09

24

Stream

Arts

08

03

11

37

Science

14

12

26

 

Tool: A questionnaire with 25 multiple choice items was constructed by the Investigator. Each item had four choices and only one of them was correct answer. The respondents were required to tick the correct answer in the questionnaire itself against the choice. All the items were based on RTE Act 2009. Each correct response would secure one mark. One teacher could get a maximum of 25 marks.

Procedure of Administration of theTool: The Investigator visited the venue of the Induction Training Programme and distributed the Questionnaires to the participants with a request to respond to them. They were given necessary instructions with no time limit. In spite of that they did not take more than 30 minutes.

Analysis and Interpretation

The collected data wasanalysed by calculating Mean, SD and t-value as per the requirement of the study. Tables 2 to 5 give the details.

Table 2- Mean of all the teachers on Awareness of RTE Act 2009

N

M

Mean in percent

37

7.56

30.24

 

Table 2 shows that the calculated mean of the sample of 37 teachers is 7.56 i.e. 30.24%. This figure is below average (50%) and it shows low level of awareness on RTE Act among the newly recruited teachers. An attempt was also made by the Investigator to test the hypothesis ‘There is no significant difference in the level of awareness on RTE Act between Male and Female teachers’. Table 3 gives the details.

Table 3-Mean, SD and t-value on awareness of RTE Act 2009of Male and Female teachers

Sex

N

Mean

SD

t-value

Male

22

8.22

2.16

2.22*

Female

15

6.60

2.19

*Significant

As per Table 3, for a sample of 22 Male teachers, calculated mean is 8.22 where as for Female teachers it is 6.60. Though both the groups have scored less than 50%, Male teachers have scored higher than Female teachers. The calculated t-value is 2.22 which is higher than the table value (2.02) to be significant at 0.05 level for df 35. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and it is stated that there is significant difference between Male and Female teachers on the awareness of RTE Act 2009. Male teachers have a higher level of awareness than Female teachers. Investigator wanted to test the hypothesis ‘There is no significant difference in the level of awareness on RTE Act between Graduate and Post Graduate teachers’. Mean, SD and t-value were calculated and are given in Table 4.

Table 4- Mean, SD and t-value on awareness of RTE Act 2009of Graduate and Post Graduate teachers

Education

level

N

Mean

SD

t-value

Graduation

13

7.92

2.01

0.75**

Post Graduation

24

7.37

2.39

**Not Significant

As reflected in Table 4, Mean score of Graduates on awareness of RTE Act is 7.92 whereas of Post Graduates is 7.37. The obtained t-value is 0.75. For df 35, table value of‘t ‘is 2.02 to be significant at 0.05 level. But as the obtained value is less than the table value, the hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, we can say that there is no significant difference between Graduate and Post Graduate teachers on awareness of RTE Act.

It was also felt necessary by the Investigator to find whether there is any difference among the teachers in their awareness level depending on their stream of study i.e. Arts and Science. Mean, SD and t-value were calculated as shown in Table 5.

Table 5-Mean, SD and t-value on awareness of RTE Act 2009of teachers with Arts and Science streams

Stream

N

Mean

SD

t-value

Arts

26

8.42

2.48

0.63**

Science

11

7.87

2.40

**Not Significant

As given in Table 5, while the teachers with Arts stream have scored a mean of 8.42, the teachers with Science stream have scored a mean of 7.87. Though there is a difference in mean scores, it is less than 1.0. The obtained t-value which is 0.63 further confirms that the difference between means is not significant, as this value is less than the table value i.e. 2.02 to be significant at 0.05 level for df 35. Therefore, null hypothesis is accepted and it is stated that there is no significant difference between teachers with Arts and Science streams on awareness of RTE Act 2009.

Findings

The Investigator arrived at following findings based on the study.

  • The awareness level on RTE Act of newly recruited teachers of residential schools is below 50%.
  • There is significant difference between Male and Female teachers on the awareness of RTE Act 2009. Male teachers have a higher level of awareness than Female teachers.
  • There is no significant difference in the level of awareness on RTE Act between Graduate and Post Graduate teachers as well as teachers with Arts and Science streams.

As the sample was too small, the above findings cannot be generalized. However, it helps in understanding the status of awareness level.

Educational Implications

The study has shown that there is a need to improve the awareness level of teachers on RTE Act. As they are all newly recruited teachers and might have been exposed to ICT during their pre service education, efforts can be made to provide input through face to face as well as distance mode to increase their awareness level on RTE Act.

References

  • Kamath, Asha KVD (2010).”Responsibilities of Schools in the light of the Act of Right to Education’. Modern Educational Research in India. Vol.11(4).
  • Nirmala, Y. (2011).’ Curriculum for Professional Development of Teachers’. In N. Venkataiah (2011).Professional Development of Teachers. Hyderabad. Neelkamal Publications.
  • Rai, G.K.(2012).‘Challenges in Implementing the RTE Act’. www.infochangeindia.org
  • RTE Act (2009.) The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act.  New Delhi. Gazette of India. Ministry of Law and Justice.
 

Development of Higher Education in Assam

 

Development of Higher Education in Assam

 

Dr. Shewali Bora
Assistant Professor, Department of Education
Sarupathar College

Abstract

Higher education plays a very important role in the society by bringing all round development to human being. Higher education in India follows the mandate of 10+2+3 recommended by National Policy of Education, 1986. Assam is the gateway to the North-Eastern region. Though the first higher educational institutions were established way back in 1901, the area is still lagging behind towards higher education. The present paper reveals the progress and development of higher educational institutions of Assam.

Keywords: higher education, development

Introduction

The progress of a nation mainly depends upon the expansion and quality improvement of education in the society. In this regard higher education plays a very important role by bringing all round development to human being. Higher education is provided at colleges, universities, community colleges, liberal arts colleges, institutes of technology and certain other collegiate institutions such as vocational schools, trade schools and career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. The faculty of higher education includes: Arts, Science, Commerce, Engineering, Medicine, Agriculture, and Veterinary, Law etc. Higher education in India follows the mandate of 10+2+3 recommended by National Policy of Education, 1986.

Among the educational institutions, the universities have become the chief agencies of higher education across the world. Higher education in India was first introduced by the then British Govt. in 1857 with the establishment of universities in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. These three universities were affiliating, examining and regulating bodies at the beginning. The universities were engaged in preparing syllabus and conducting examinations and colleges affiliated to it did the teaching. But except in Indian sub-continent namely India, Pakistan and Bangladesh there is no affiliating colleges in the world because of the problems of delivering quality education.

The University of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras started with the faculties of arts, law, medicine and engineering.  Subsequently several Acts were passed and as a result of it Punjab University at Lahore in 1882 and Allahabad University in 1887 were established. These universities were also examining and affiliating bodies. Only after Indian Universities Act 1904, the universities are entrusted with the task of teaching along with right of conducting examinations.

Assam is one of the most important parts of the North-Eastern Region. It covers an area of 78438.08 sq km (2011 Census). As per 2011 Census, the total population of Assam is 3,11,69,272 of which 1,59,54,927 are males and 1,52,74,345 are females. The literacy rate of Assam is 73.18%.  The state of Assam has 27 administrative districts.

Assam is the gateway to the North-Eastern region. Though the first higher educational institutions were established way back in 1901, the area is still lagging behind towards higher education.

Objectives

The present paper is designed to study the following objectives:

  1. To study the development of higher educational institutions in Assam
  2. To study the enrolment in the higher educational institutions of Assam
  3. To offer suggestions for the improvement of higher education in Assam

Methodology

The present study is based on secondary sources.

Results and analysis

Based on first objective

Higher Education in Assam started with the establishment of Cotton College in Guwahati in the year 1901. This college was named after the Chief Commission of Assam, Henry John Stedman Cotton. This college was affiliated to Calcutta University at that time. No universities were there in the North-Eastern Region till 1947. Only after independence, the first University of the North-Eastern Region i.e. Gauhati University was established in the year 1948. From that time onwards a number of higher educational institutions were established in the state of Assam. Following table gives us a clear picture of the number of universities and institutes of national importance in the state of Assam

Table: Category wise Number of Universities and Institutes of National Importance

Universities

Name of the University

Year of Establishment

Central Universities (2)

Assam University, Silchar

1994

Tezpur University, Tezpur

1994

State Universities (4)

Gauhati University, Guwahati

1948

Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh

1965

Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat

1969

Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University, Guwahati

2005

Private Universities (2)

Assam Don Bosco University, Azara, Guwahati

2009

Assam Down Town University, Guwahati

2009

Institutes of National Importance (2)

Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

1994

National Institute of Technology, Silchar

2002

 

From the above table it is observed that the Gauhati University is the first university in the state of Assam. Moreover, there were no other universities in the entire North-Eastern region before the establishment of Gauhati University. It was followed by Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh and Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat. Similarly, two Central Universities and one Indian Institute of Technology were established in 1994 to serve the purpose of higher education in the area. The need of establishment of private university was felt only in the 21st century. These institutions are serving the requirement of higher education in Assam.

Besides these, a number of colleges both general and professional were established in the area to cater the need of the people of Assam. At present, a total of 368 general colleges are there in the state of Assam of which 7 are Govt. Colleges, 189 are provincialised colleges and 172 are colleges receiving financial assistance.

But, compared to general colleges, professional colleges are less in number. A total of 75 colleges are there in the state of Assam. Out of these 75 colleges, 2 colleges are agriculture and Forestry College, 18 are Technology and Engineering Colleges (including Central/State and Private), 14 are Management Institutes, 2 are Veterinary Colleges, 16 are Medical Colleges (including Homeo/Ayurvedic/Dental/Pharmacy/Nursing) and 23 are ANM/GNM training Colleges.

Based on second objective

The growth of enrolment of the higher educational institutions of Assam is not satisfactory.  As per Census, 2011, enrolment was high in arts stream as compared to the other streams of the higher educational institutions of Assam. Following figure reveals the enrolment in the various courses of higher educational institutions.

development_of_higher_education_in_ASsam_JPEG

Fig.1 Total enrolment in the higher educational institutions, 2011-2012

Source: Statistical Handbook Assam 2012

Based on objective three

Following suggestions will have positive impact to the present condition of higher education in Assam.

  1. Though a number of higher educational institutions are established in Assam, enrolment in these institutions is not up to the mark. So, the authority should look into the matter and should organise some attractive and motivational programmes to draw the attention of the people of the region.
  2. Moreover, to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of Assam which is only 9%, the state Govt. as well as the higher officials should held some high level discussions with the authority.
  3. Number of professional colleges should be increased to increase the professional competence among the youths.
  4. Motivational programmes at the secondary level should be organised to attract the students towards the various courses of higher education.

In conclusion, it is clear that the higher education in Assam is progressing quantitatively to cope up with the present changing scenario. Moreover, the authority should try to improve the quality of these educational institutions to the utmost level possible. Besides, to increase the number of students in various courses reformative policies should be adopted by the Govt. for the benefit of the students. Colleges and universities should also introduce some new courses and ought to set upliason with top ranked foreign universities in the world. Academic exchange between different universities is also needed to improve the quality of higher education in Assam.

References

Ahmed, Shakeel. “An Assessment of the Growth and Grants of Higher Education in India.” University News 48.12 (2010): 1-5. Print.

Dutta, P.K. “Higher Education in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities.”University News 43.48 (2005): 1-9. Print.

Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. 2nd ed. New Delhi: New Age International, 2004. Print.

Singh, K.P. and Ahmad, Shakeel. “Taking Stock of Higher Education in the North East” Economic and Political Weekly 47.38 (2012): 24-27. Print.

 

Learners and Their Concepts of ‘Force’

Learners and Their Concepts of ‘Force’

Rakesh Kumar

Assistant Professor

MV COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,

University of Delhi.

Abstract

Learners’ efforts to understand the physical and natural world is not limited to adult interventions. While cominng up coming up with some answers, they just put their best efforts and the resultant conceptions are like their mates. All these conceptions are not necessarily acceptable by the scientific community as efficient ones. These OTHER CONCEPTIONS are the issue taken up in the present study. Different researches show that these other conceptions are formed in both formal and informal settings that are continuous with each other. In the present study the science learning context had been explored while the topic/area of explorations was ‘FORCE’. The study reveals that in the classroom the learners wanted to know why soil does not change its shapes when force is applied on it; learners were curious to learn science but they didn’t know how the knowledge of science helped them in their lives; books and teachers play an important role in the lives of learners; teacher found that learners did not know how to operate computer or internet; she suggested that computer classes might be taken so that the learners know about usage of modern technology.

Key Words: Teaching-Learning contexts, Force, Alternative Frameworks, network of conceptions, learners’ questions, learners’ diagrams

 


Introduction

(Worth, 1999) in ‘The Power of Children’s Thinking’ thinks of children as natural scientists and posits that, “They do what scientists do, but perhaps for some slightly different and less conscious reasons. They are anxious to understand the world just as adults are or one can say even better than them. There is a terribly interesting, but rather confusing, world full of stimuli all around them. Many adults, however, have learned to ignore some of that world rather than investigate it. Young children ignore very little” (Worth, 1999). “Moreover when children start school and throughout their school years, they already have pre-formed ideas about how the natural world works. These ideas may come from within the instructional setting or from their experiences outside of school. Research has shown that teaching is unlikely to be effective unless teachers and curriculum materials take into account learners’ preconceptions” (Driver, Squires, Rushworth, & Wood-Robinson, 1994).

The term preconception has a connotation of pre-instructional conception developed by the science learner. “Teachers and researchers generally refer to pre instructional knowledge as preconceptions. Before beginning instruction on any new topic, teachers need to know their learners’ preconceptions because learning, and therefore instruction itself, varies depending on whether learners’ preconceptions agree with the concepts being taught or contradict those concepts” (Lucariello, 2012).

[...] 22 of the 25 Harvard University faculty and graduating learners they interviewed -- including some with science majors -- had reverted to their childhood notions of the universe”. “Learners’ conceptions change progressively as they are exposed to additional relevant information in higher grades” (Lee, 2007).(Blizak, F. Chafiqi, 2009) found that there is no change in learners’ misconceptions after 20 years of research concerning light and optical phenomena. They also noted that the misconceptions, which have been found in earlier studies, also exist in the understanding of present day learners. They found some new misconceptions like ‘light propagates in the horizontal direction when the force doesn’t exist’.

Even though sometimes learners' conception may happen with the logical explanations, but there still may be some conflict between the learner's aptitude and the scientifically acknowledged knowing of nature and natural phenomenon. “The term alternative conception is used to mean learners’ ideas, manifested after exposure to formal models or theories, which are still at odds with those currently accepted by the scientific community” (Boo, 1998). There is however a clear cut difference between the terms alternative conceptions and alternative framework. This difference is related with the consistency of using an alternative conception in more than one context. “When an alternative conception is used with consistency over more than one context or event, it is referred to as an alternative framework” (Boo, 1998).

Need of Study:

There are umpteen challenges in science education at present. These consist of utilizing prior understanding and deep-rooted personal experiences of the learners in the school, creating meaningful science learning experiences for them, providing efficient models to the learners to create their science concepts on, engaging the student in fascinating, inspiring, and effective ways, imbibing our aptitude of nature of science in instructional practices etc. Ample classrooms and learning model limitations force an educator not to give individualized attention to the learner (Kumar, 2012).

Alternative Frameworks have many serious concerns attached with their presence and something especially concerning about them is that we, at all stages of our development, continue to build further knowledge on our current understandings. This development of learning would be seriously impacted if there are Alternative Frameworks at their core (Black, 2006). “Specifically, the major concerns involve identifying (a) potential underlying beliefs that may influence the construction of concepts, (b) cognitive processes that contribute to the construction of concepts and meaning, (c) variables that affect conceptual development, and (d) variables that may influence the construction of meaning” (Bloom, 1990). Nevertheless, "Alternative Framework is a term from constructivist framework but cannot be limited to its boundaries and should be used in more distinct meanings" ((Kumar, 2011)).

The following effort is directed to the issue of identification of possible sites of Alternative Frameworks and explorations of the teaching  learning  contexts  in which these have been explored has been drawn from the reflections and analysis of the teachers teaching them.

Different researches show that Alternative Frameworks are formed in both formal and informal settings that are difficult to understand in discontinuity from each other. This generates the need to understand science learning contexts in an integrated form from multiple dimensions.

The nature of the study was such that it was not possible for the researcher to control the variables in the process of formation and addressing Alternative Frameworks among learners in science. Thus, in the absence of controlled variables no hypothesis has been formulated. This also helped the researcher in keeping a distance from his own preconceived notions about different dimensions of the study.

Research Methodology

Research Questions and Objective

The following questions are focussed:

  • How do science learners perceive their natural classroom environment while a topic FORCE is being undertaken?
  • What are the possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks when the topic FORCE is taken up in the classroom?
  • What questions come to learners’ mind when the topic FORCE is taken up in the classroom?

The study has focused on the following objectives:

  • Exploring teaching learning contexts in science classrooms, with special reference to topic FORCE being undertaken.
  • Identifying possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks when the topic FORCE is taken up in the classroom (if any).
  • Identifying the questions that come to learners’ mind when the topic FORCE is taken up in the classroom.

Methodology, sample and tools:

Methodology:

The researcher came to the understanding that there might be many more possibilities of formation of Alternative Frameworks in the life experiences of science learners that might need deep probing. For this, the science learning experiences were explored to locate potential sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks. Based on understanding developed from the review of related literature and researcher’s own experience as science teacher/teacher educator, a comprehensive tool was developed by the researcher. This tool related to different issues related to different areas of the teaching-learning processes in science.

These 38 Pre-Service science teachers who are the B.Ed. students of the two of Education in Delhi, India) were chosen as convenient samples for the study. Most of the observations, interpretations, analysis and reflections done by the participants were discussed with them also to develop their insight about their own science classrooms. These 38 prospective science teachers of the two colleges (MV College of Education and GRD College of Education in Delhi) who were chosen as samples for the study have henceforth been addressed as science teachers. These science teachers were also a connection to reach to the science learners in the schools. Thus an input from the science classrooms was available to the teachers during their school life experience program. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program.

A tool described in later part of the study tool was used on these 38 pre-service teachers. But the data from 30 pre-service science teachers was collected in the form of self-assessment feedback regarding 592 Science lessons transacted by them during their school life experience program. 8 Pre-service teachers became non-responding. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program as described later. Training of teachers was done for both data collection (one day) and analysis (three days). In addition, two days were devoted for reflection and discussion on resolution of the problems faced during the process.

Sample

Total 38 Pre-Service Science teachers participated from two B.Ed. colleges of University of Delhi and GGSIP University, Delhi. This “ensured participation of total 18 schools in which above Pre-Service teachers had their School Life Experience Program. These teachers had diverse graduation and post-graduation subjects.

 

Figure 1 - Classification of teachers’ sample


 


Figure 2 - Classification of School sample


Notations: G- Government; P- Private; G.A.-Government Aided; K.V.-Kendriya Vidyalaya


Out of total 38 Pre-Service teachers, code numbers 1.01 to code number 1.30 were given to 30 Pre-service teachers from Guru Ram Dass College of Education and 8 Pre-Service teachers from Maharishi Valmiki College of Education received code numbers 2.01 to code number 2.08. Clearly, the sample is not a random sample but a purposive one. Although no deliberate attempt was made for the sample to be homogeneous or representative, it got addressed in the process to some extent. The science teachers belonged to different socio-economic backgrounds. The science learners’ belonged to different sorts of school settings. These types of schools included all boys’ school, all girls’ schools, government, government aided and public schools. Therefore, we can say that different socio-economic backgrounds and diversity in teaching-learning settings has been represented largely in the sample.

Tools for data collection

In the review of the available tools, it was identified that these tools cannot be used in order to collect required data for the present study or in other words, suitable tools for getting the relevant data could not be located. Thus, in order to explore teaching learning contexts in science classrooms with respect to possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks among learners in science, a tool was thus developed in the form of a questionnaire. The major themes of the questionnaire include exploration about the resources that the learners tend to tap, their preferred learning styles, possible sites of Alternative Frameworks, their notion about themselves as science learners etc.

To validate the tools, the First draft of tools was given to experts namely school teachers, and colleagues in teacher education institutions, and ambiguous language and other issues resolved and the items modified subsequently.

In the questionnaire filled by the science learners in different schools in Delhi, the question number six was ‘Mention the question you asked/wanted to ask’. In order to analyse these questions, the researcher categorized the questions in the response to this question in terms of the topics/areas they represent. Originally 449 questions were received from the science learners.  After removing repetitions, 17 areas finally emerged out of these questions as categories. In the questionnaire filled by the science learners in different schools in Delhi, the question number thirteen was ‘What figures, diagrams and scientific terms did you use? Please draw/write it.’ On this question total 908 diagrams and figures were received and were grouped according to the concept represented in them. In each of the groups the analysis follows regarding the concepts depicted and possible sites of alternative framework. In the study, the questions asked by them were also explored. This part along with the preceding one constitutes the breeding ground of Alternative Frameworks amongst learners in science that will need deep probing to start the journey of addressing them. Also it is to be noted that this approach can guide the science teachers to assist learners in moving towards scientific conceptions that are at the heart of science learning by identifying the point of start. The analysis of figures and diagrams made and terms used by science learners was analysed to identify following sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks that will further deep probing for understanding of their context.

Collection of data:

The questionnaire prepared by the researcher and vetted by two eminent scholars was used for the collection of data. This questionnaire was distributed to more than 1207 learners of science (as described in the Figure 3) studying in classes sixth to tenth across Delhi and received from total 979 learners. These schools catered to the needs of a diverse population. Some particular topics were under focus in various schools (due to the schedules fixed by the educational structure) at the time when data from school was collected. Thus, some topics got more coverage in the study than the others as the topics under discussion were not in researcher’s control.

 

 

Figure 3 - Classification of science learners 

The questionnaire for science learners containing total 17 items was given after transaction of 12 to 15 lesson plans and collected on the same day itself by the science teachers. The primary task of analysing and reflecting on these questionnaires filled up by the science learners was given to the science teachers so that they are able to make linkages with their own classrooms in their particular contexts, which is not possible for the researcher to make. Science teachers were given about 10 days for this task. This analysis and reflection was summarized by the researcher and analysed to see patterns, exceptions and other aspects. Two of those 17 questions from the questionnaires filled up by the science learners were analysed by the researcher. These two questions were related to ‘questions that are coming to the mind of the science learner’ and second the ‘figures, diagrams and scientific terms used’ by the science learner. While the former was analysed to understand the nature of questions that are coming to the science learners mind, the latter was analysed to identify the concepts depicted and the possible sites of Alternative Frameworks (if any).

Analysis of Data

Questions from the questionnaires filled up by the science learners were analysed in two ways.

(a)        The first and the primary analysis was done by their own science teachers, that are discussed in part

(b)        Two questions i.e. question number six and number 13 were analysed by the researcher only. Question number six was related to the questions that come to the students’ mind while the teacher was transacting a particular lesson on a topic from their curriculum and question numbered 13 was related to the figures and diagrams made and terms used by the science learners. The study includes only the analysis from these two questions.

In order to analyse these questions, the researcher categorized the responses to question no. 6 of the questionnaire in terms of conceptual areas. Originally 449 questions were received from the science learners. After identifying repetitions, 17 broad conceptual areas of questions finally emerged. These questions along with the topic have been reported in the study. On the response to Question number 13 a total of 908 diagrams and figures were received and were grouped according to the concept represented in them. These were analysed with two major focuses namely the concepts and the keywords representing the possible sites of Alternative Frameworks. These two have been reported along with the original diagrams and figures drawn by the science learners in the study. In order to meet the ethical standards, the names and identifiable information of the science learner has not deliberately been put on the figures and diagrams. But the questionnaire responses filled up by every learner was coded so that the linkage with the sheet can be made without having to identify the personal information of the science learner and is imprinted on every diagram and figure.

The type of questions posed by the learners are questions from activity done in the class, conceptual queries, dilemmas, from their own observations around them, basic questions that are definitional in nature, queries that require reasoning and arguments, exploratory questions requiring experimenting, questions projecting Alternative Framework sites etc. Table 1 shows the details of the teacher and the leaner along with the topic/area that emerged from the natural settings as described above.

 

Table 1 - Details of emerging topics/areas along with teachers and learners on possible sites of alternatives frameworks

Results:

Teaching-Learning Contexts:

Teacher ID-1.26

No. of learners-24

Summary of teacher's analysis and reflection:

Learners wanted to know why soil does not change its shapes when force is applied on it; learners were curious to learn science but they didn’t know how the knowledge of science helped them in their lives; books and teachers play an important role in the lives of learners; teacher found that learners did not know how to operate computer or internet; she suggested that computer classes might be taken so that the learners know about usage of modern technology.

Analysis of questions asked:

Table 2 – Analysis of questions asked related to the topic/area ‘Force’:

 

Diagrams:

 

 

Possible sites of Alternative Frameworks from analysis of figures and diagrams made by science learners.

 

I.          On the inclined plane the force of gravity acts downward in the inclined direction.

Conclusions:

Alternative Frameworks have many serious concerns attached with their presence and something especially concerning about them is that we, at all stages of our development, continue to build further knowledge on our current understandings. This development of learning would be seriously impacted if there are Alternative Frameworks at their core (Black, 2006). While addressing these Alternative Frameworks the learning contexts play an important. For example what questions were there in their mind, what are the learning style preferences? The study reveals that during or after the teaching learning processes related to the topic FORCE following represents the learners’ framework - Learners wanted to know why soil does not change its shapes when force is applied on it; learners were curious to learn science but they didn’t know how the knowledge of science helped them in their lives; books and teachers play an important role in the lives of learners; teacher found that learners did not know how to operate computer or internet; she suggested that computer classes might be taken so that the learners know about usage of modern technology. This might lead us to some of the Alternative framework of the learner. Thus possible site for the development of alternative framework is identified. There is a visible network of issues that the learners have correlated with the topic FORCE important inference from this network pertains to variety of conceptions that the learners attach to the topic undertaken by the teacher. Comparative analysis of Data related to the Possible Sites of Alternative Frameworks reveals the following. About gravity, the above analysis reveals the alternative framework that “On the inclined plane the force of gravity acts downward”. (Martin, 1968) Found that when an object is moving there is a force in the direction of its motion. Similarly (Hapkiewicz, 1992) found a common ‘misconceptions’ about Force and Motion and simple Machines show that the motion of an object is always in the direction of the net force applied to the object and similarly (Driver et al., 1994) found the alternative framework that if a body is in motion, there is a force acting upon it in the direction of motion.

References

  • Black, S. (2006). Is Science Education Failing Students? American School Board Journal, (November), 48–51.
  • Blizak, F. Chafiqi, and D. K. (2009). Students Misconceptions about Light in Algeria. Optical Society of America.
  • Bloom, J. W. (1990). Contexts of meaning: young children's understanding of biological phenomena. International Journal of Science Education, 12(5), 549–561. doi:10.1080/0950069900120507
  • Boo, H. K. (1998). Students’ understandings of chemical bonds and the energetics of chemical reactions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(5), 569–581.
  • . Routledge. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=Y1xetwAACAAJ&pgis=1
  • Hapkiewicz, A. (1992). Finding a List of Science Misconceptions. MSTA Newsletter, pp. 11–14.
  • Kumar, R. (2011). Development of Alternative Frameworks Among Learners in Science: A Reflection on the Learning Theories and Models. Journal of Teacher Education in Developing Nations, 2(2), 55–61.
  • Kumar, R. (2012). Efficacy of CAL in Addressing Alternative Frameworks Amongst Learners in Science: An Exploration. In NAAC sponsored National Seminar on Quality Assurance of Teacher Education: Initiatives and Mechanisms. Department of Education, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh, Uttrakhand.
  • Lee, M. (2007). High School Students’ Alternative Ideas about Chemical Bonding. Dr. Foley. SED 690.
  • Lucariello, J. (2012). How Do My Students Think: Diagnosing Student Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/education/k12/student-thinking.aspx
  • Martin, S. & O. (1968). Basic physics I. Sydney: Whitcombe & Tombs.
  • Worth, K. (1999). The Power of Children’s Thinking (2nd ed.). Washington DC: National Science Foundation.

 


 

 

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