ISSN-2231 0495

Volume 4 || Issue 6 - Nov. 2014

Learners’ Ideas on ‘Soil’ and Classroom Implications

Learners’ Ideas on ‘Soil’ and Classroom Implications

Rakesh Kumar

Assistant Professor

MV COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,

University of Delhi.

Abstract

In the present  study the science learning context had been explored while the topic/area of explorations was ‘SOIL’. About the first classroom the study reveals that 58 % of learners wanted to know something more on the topic and showed dissatisfaction with what was given in the book; 82% learners looked for other resources of learning; 28 % learners wanted to ask questions on the topic; 38 % learners said they planned/performed activities to find answers of their questions; 57 % learners said that they shared what they learnt with others; Most of the learners wanted to know more about soil; they were not satisfied with the lesson given in book; they tried to perform experiment on their own rather than taking help from other people. About the second classroom study reveals that Most of the learners wanted to know something more on the topic discussed in the class; they discussed & shared their observations & explanations with others; most of the learners wanted to know about the process of formation of soil; they thought they would learn better about the topic by performing an activity; learners shared their observations and explanations with others. And, about the third classroom the study reveals that 66% of learners did not want to know something more on the topic discussed in the classroom ; they shared their school experience with friends and parents; most of them talked to their parents to find out answers to the problems that they had in their minds. More exploration of the learners’ questions like, - “How is soil formed? What is soil profile? What are the layers of soil? How can soil pollution be ended? What is the bedrock? How soil can be used? What are the changes in soil? What is the process to make soil? What is loamy, Sandy soil? Rocks are made up of? What type of rock particles are there in the soil? How many types of soil are there in the world? I want to know more about Gravel. How is soil profile formed? How is clayey soil useful for crops? What type of soil should be used for making 'Sarah’?” may be needed. From the diagrams (made by learners) presented in the study, possible sites of alternative framework may be explored in the ideas like - Water is between humus and clay, sand gravels as if no water exists between the space in between. These type of diagrams can be considered by the teacher to be starting point of their explorations of the learners’ Alternative Frameworks.

Key Words: Teaching-Learning contexts, Soil, Alternative Frameworks, network of conceptions, learners’ questions, learners’ diagrams

 

Introduction

When asked ‘What causes the phases of the moon? Why does season change?’ Learners do come up with some answers, even though they have not had any such discussions with elders, says  (Weiler, 1998).

“Some call these early ideas that children form as Alternative Frameworks; others label them naive conceptions, or alternative conceptions. Alternative Frameworks might also be referred to as preconceived notions, non-scientific beliefs, naive theories, mixed conceptions, or conceptual misunderstandings. Basically, in science these are cases in which something a person knows and believes does not match what is known to be scientifically correct. These terms identifying similar mismatches are used interchangeably in this study and are referred to as Alternative Frameworks” (Worth, 1999).

“The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly”

(Ausubel, 1968)

(Worth, 1999) in ‘The Power of Children’s Thinking’ thinks of children as natural scientists and posits that, “They do what scientists do, but perhaps for some slightly different and less conscious reasons. They are anxious to understand the world just as adults are or one can say even better than them. There is a terribly interesting, but rather confusing, world full of stimuli all around them. Many adults, however, have learned to ignore some of that world rather than investigate it. Young children ignore very little” (Worth, 1999). The curiosity of children is many times evident in the questions that they ask. Since children are more curious and receptive than usual adults. Instead of idealised world of scientific theories, they weave. The web of their understanding from the exploration of messy world around them and this is with what a child enters the school.

“Moreover when children start school and throughout their school years, they already have preformed ideas about how the natural world works. These ideas may come from within the instructional setting or from their experiences outside of school. Research has shown that teaching is unlikely to be effective unless teachers and curriculum materials take into account learners’ preconceptions” (Driver, Squires, Rushworth, & Wood-Robinson, 1994).

“The term alternative conception is used to mean learners’ ideas, manifested after exposure to formal models or theories, which are still at odds with those currently accepted by the scientific community” (Boo, 1998). “When an alternative conception is used with consistency over more than one context or event, it is referred to as an alternative framework” (Boo, 1998).

Need of Study:

Karen Worth argues that “a child is not going to give up his theory made by so much effort and observations just because an adult disapproves it or a single event challenges it. Children do not want to give up the concepts and theories they work so hard to make. They take their experiences and struggle to come up with understandings that work in their daily lives. They are not about to drop their ideas just because someone says so, or because an event disproves what they have come to believe. As anyone familiar with the history of science can attest, even adults have trouble changing theories that are well grounded in experience. If a child's theory works, if it has been productive and the child has worked hard to build that theory, he/she will not give it up unless he/she has a lot of new experiences that provide reasons to do so” (Worth, 1999).

Alternative Frameworks have many serious concerns attached with their presence and something especially concerning about them is that we, at all stages of our development, continue to build further knowledge on our current understandings. This development of learning would be seriously impacted if there are Alternative Frameworks at their core (Black, 2006). [...] 22 of the 25 Harvard University faculty and graduating learners they interviewed -- including some with science majors -- had reverted to their childhood notions of the universe”.

“Learners’ conceptions change progressively as they are exposed to additional relevant information in higher grades” (Lee, 2007).

(Hancock, 1940) defined a "misconception" as "...any unfounded belief that does not embody the element of fear, good luck, faith, or supernatural intervention" (p. 208).

(Barrass, 1984) wrote of “‘mistakes’ or errors, ‘misconceptions’ or misleading ideas, and "misunderstandings" or misinterpretations of facts, saying that teachers and brighter learners can correct errors. But what attention is paid to misconceptions and misunderstandings that are perpetuated by teachers and textbook researchers?”

The term preconception has a connotation of pre-instructional conception developed by the science learner. “Teachers and researchers generally refer to pre instructional knowledge as preconceptions. Before beginning instruction on any new topic, teachers need to know their learners’ preconceptions because learning, and therefore instruction itself, varies depending on whether learners’ preconceptions agree with the concepts being taught or contradict those concepts” (Lucariello, 2012).

“Specifically, the major concerns involve identifying (a) potential underlying beliefs that may influence the construction of concepts, (b) cognitive processes that contribute to the construction of concepts and meaning, (c) variables that affect conceptual development, and (d) variables that may influence the construction of meaning” (Bloom, 1990).

The following effort is directed to the issue of identification of possible sites of Alternative Frameworks and explorations of the teaching  learning  contexts  in which these have been explored has been drawn from the reflections and analysis of the teachers teaching them.

Different researches show that Alternative Frameworks are formed in both formal and informal settings that are difficult to understand in discontinuity from each other. This generates the need to understand science learning contexts in an integrated form from multiple dimensions.

The nature of the study was such that it was not possible for the researcher to control the variables in the process of formation and addressing Alternative Frameworks among learners in science. Thus, in the absence of controlled variables no hypothesis has been formulated. This also helped the researcher in keeping a distance from his own preconceived notions about different dimensions of the study.

 

Research Methodology

Research Questions and Objective

The following questions are focussed:

  • How do science learners perceive their natural classroom environment while a topic SOIL is being undertaken?
  • What are the possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks when the topic SOIL is taken up in the classroom?
  • What questions come to learners’ mind when the topic SOIL is taken up in the classroom?

The study has focused on the following objectives:

  • Exploring teaching learning contexts in science classrooms, with special reference to topic SOIL being undertaken.
  • Identifying possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks when the topic SOIL is taken up in the classroom (if any).
  • Identifying the questions that come to learners’ mind when the topic SOIL is taken up in the classroom.

Methodology, sample and tools:

Methodology:

The researcher came to the understanding that there might be many more possibilities of formation of Alternative Frameworks in the life experiences of science learners that might need deep probing. For this, the science learning experiences were explored to locate potential sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks. Based on understanding developed from the review of related literature and researcher’s own experience as science teacher/teacher educator, a comprehensive tool was developed by the researcher. This tool related to different issues related to different areas of the teaching-learning processes in science.

These 38 Pre-Service science teachers who are the B.Ed. students of the two of Education in Delhi, India) were chosen as convenient samples for the study. Most of the observations, interpretations, analysis and reflections done by the participants were discussed with them also to develop their insight about their own science classrooms. These 38 prospective science teachers of the two colleges (MV College of Education and GRD College of Education in Delhi) who were chosen as samples for the study have henceforth been addressed as science teachers. These science teachers were also a connection to reach to the science learners in the schools. Thus an input from the science classrooms was available to the teachers during their school life experience program. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program.

A tool described in later part of the study tool was used on these 38 pre-service teachers. But the data from 30 pre-service science teachers was collected in the form of self-assessment feedback regarding 592 Science lessons transacted by them during their school life experience program. 8 Pre-service teachers became non-responding. All types of schools were allotted to these science teachers during their school life experience program as described later. Training of teachers was done for both data collection (one day) and analysis (three days). In addition, two days were devoted for reflection and discussion on resolution of the problems faced during the process.

Sample

Total 38 Pre-Service Science teachers participated from two B.Ed. colleges of University of Delhi and GGSIP University, Delhi. This “ensured participation of total 18 schools in which above Pre-Service teachers had their School Life Experience Program. These teachers had diverse graduation and post-graduation subjects.

 

Figure 1 - Classification of teachers’ sample




Figure 2 - Classification of School sample

Notations: G- Government; P- Private; G.A.-Government Aided; K.V.-Kendriya Vidyalaya

 

Out of total 38 Pre-Service teachers, code numbers 1.01 to code number 1.30 were given to 30 Pre-service teachers from Guru Ram Dass College of Education and 8 Pre-Service teachers from Maharishi Valmiki College of Education received code numbers 2.01 to code number 2.08. Clearly, the sample is not a random sample but a purposive one. Although no deliberate attempt was made for the sample to be homogeneous or representative, it got addressed in the process to some extent. The science teachers belonged to different socio-economic backgrounds. The science learners’ belonged to different sorts of school settings. These types of schools included all boys’ school, all girls’ schools, government, government aided and public schools. Therefore, we can say that different socio-economic backgrounds and diversity in teaching-learning settings has been represented largely in the sample.

Tools for data collection

In the review of the available tools, it was identified that these tools cannot be used in order to collect required data for the present study or in other words, suitable tools for getting the relevant data could not be located. Thus, in order to explore teaching learning contexts in science classrooms with respect to possible sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks among learners in science, a tool was thus developed in the form of a questionnaire. The major themes of the questionnaire include exploration about the resources that the learners tend to tap, their preferred learning styles, possible sites of Alternative Frameworks, their notion about themselves as science learners etc.

To validate the tools, the First draft of tools was given to experts namely school teachers, and colleagues in teacher education institutions, and ambiguous language and other issues resolved and the items modified subsequently.

In the questionnaire filled by the science learners in different schools in Delhi, the question number six was ‘Mention the question you asked/wanted to ask’. In order to analyse these questions, the researcher categorized the questions in the response to this question in terms of the topics/areas they represent. Originally 449 questions were received from the science learners.  After removing repetitions, 17 areas finally emerged out of these questions as categories. In the questionnaire filled by the science learners in different schools in Delhi, the question number thirteen was ‘What figures, diagrams and scientific terms did you use? Please draw/write it.’ On this question total 908 diagrams and figures were received and were grouped according to the concept represented in them. In each of the groups the analysis follows regarding the concepts depicted and possible sites of alternative framework. In the study, the questions asked by them were also explored. This part along with the preceding one constitutes the breeding ground of Alternative Frameworks amongst learners in science that will need deep probing to start the journey of addressing them. Also it is to be noted that this approach can guide the science teachers to assist learners in moving towards scientific conceptions that are at the heart of science learning by identifying the point of start. The analysis of figures and diagrams made and terms used by science learners was analysed to identify following sites of formation of Alternative Frameworks that will further deep probing for understanding of their context.

Collection of data:

The questionnaire prepared by the researcher and vetted by two eminent scholars was used for the collection of data. This questionnaire was distributed to more than 1207 learners of science ( as described in the Figure 3) studying in classes sixth to tenth across Delhi and received from total 979 learners. These schools catered to the needs of a diverse population. Some particular topics were under focus in various schools (due to the schedules fixed by the educational structure) at the time when data from school was collected. Thus, some topics got more coverage in the study than the others as the topics under discussion were not in researcher’s control.

 

Figure 1 - Classification of science learners

 

The questionnaire for science learners containing total 17 items was given after transaction of 12 to 15 lesson plans and collected on the same day itself by the science teachers. The primary task of analysing and reflecting on these questionnaires filled up by the science learners was given to the science teachers so that they are able to make linkages with their own classrooms in their particular contexts, which is not possible for the researcher to make. Science teachers were given about 10 days for this task. This analysis and reflection was summarized by the researcher and analysed to see patterns, exceptions and other aspects. Two of those 17 questions from the questionnaires filled up by the science learners were analysed by the researcher. These two questions were related to ‘questions that are coming to the mind of the science learner’ and second the ‘figures, diagrams and scientific terms used’ by the science learner. While the former was analysed to understand the nature of questions that are coming to the science learners mind, the latter was analysed to identify the concepts depicted and the possible sites of Alternative Frameworks (if any).

Analysis of Data

Questions from the questionnaires filled up by the science learners were analysed in two ways.

(a)        The first and the primary analysis was done by their own science teachers, that are discussed in part

(b)        Two questions i.e. question number six and number 13 were analysed by the researcher only. Question number six was related to the questions that come to the students’ mind while the teacher was transacting a particular lesson on a topic from their curriculum and question numbered 13 was related to the figures and diagrams made and terms used by the science learners. The study includes only the analysis from these two questions.

In order to analyse these questions, the researcher categorized the responses to question no. 6 of the questionnaire in terms of conceptual areas. Originally 449 questions were received from the science learners. After identifying repetitions, 17 broad conceptual areas of questions finally emerged. These questions along with the topic have been reported in the study. On the response to Question number 13 a total of 908 diagrams and figures were received and were grouped according to the concept represented in them. These were analysed with two major focuses namely the concepts and the keywords representing the possible sites of Alternative Frameworks. These two have been reported along with the original diagrams and figures drawn by the science learners in the study. In order to meet the ethical standards, the names and identifiable information of the science learner has not deliberately been put on the figures and diagrams. But the questionnaire responses filled up by every learner was coded so that the linkage with the sheet can be made without having to identify the personal information of the science learner and is imprinted on every diagram and figure.

The type of questions posed by the learners are questions from activity done in the class, conceptual queries, dilemmas, from their own observations around them, basic questions that are definitional in nature, queries that require reasoning and arguments, exploratory questions requiring experimenting, questions projecting Alternative Framework sites etc. Table 1 shows the details of the teacher and the leaner along with the topic/area that emerged from the natural settings as described above.

 

Table 1 - Details of emerging topics/areas along with teachers and learners on possible sites of alternatives frameworks

Results:

Teaching-Learning Contexts:

58 % of learners wanted to know something more on the topic and showed dissatisfaction with what was given in the book; 82% learners looked for other resources of learning; 28 % learners wanted to ask questions on the topic; 38 % learners said they planned/performed activities to find answers of their questions; 57 % learners said that they shared what they learnt with others; Most of the learners wanted to know more about soil; they were not satisfied with the lesson given in book; they tried to perform experiment on their own rather than taking help from other people.

Teacher ID-1.14 No. of learners-9

Summary of teacher's analysis and reflection:

Most of the learners wanted to know something more on the topic discussed in the class; they discussed & shared their observations & explanations with others; most of the learners wanted to know about the process of formation of soil; they thought they would learn better about the topic by performing an activity; learners shared their observations and explanations with others.

Teacher ID-1.04

No. of learners-30

Summary of teacher's analysis and reflection:

66% of learners did not want to know something more on the topic discussed in the classroom ; they shared their school experience with friends and parents; most of them talked to their parents to find out answers to the problems that they had in their minds.

Analysis of questions asked:

Questions asked related to the topic/area ‘Soil’

Diagrams

 

 

Possible sites of Alternative Frameworks from analysis of figures and diagrams made by science learners

Soil:

 

I.          Water is between humus and clay, sand gravels as if no water exists between the space in between. (Diagram-1.3.17)

Conclusions:

The study reveals that during or after the teaching learning processes related to the topic SOIL following represents the learners’ framework - 58 % of learners wanted to know something more on the topic and showed dissatisfaction with what was given in the book; 82% learners looked for other resources of learning; 28 % learners wanted to ask questions on the topic; 38 % learners said they planned/performed activities to find answers of their questions; 57 % learners said that they shared what they learnt with others; Most of the learners wanted to know more about soil; they were not satisfied with the lesson given in book; they tried to perform experiment on their own rather than taking help from other people. About the second classroom study reveals that Most of the learners wanted to know something more on the topic discussed in the class; they discussed & shared their observations & explanations with others; most of the learners wanted to know about the process of formation of soil; they thought they would learn better about the topic by performing an activity; learners shared their observations and explanations with others. And, about the third classroom the study reveals that 66% of learners did not want to know something more on the topic discussed in the classroom ; they shared their school experience with friends and parents; most of them talked to their parents to find out answers to the problems that they had in their minds. More exploration of the learners’ questions like, - “How is soil formed? What is soil profile? What are the layers of soil? How can soil pollution be ended? What is the bedrock? How soil can be used? What are the changes in soil? What is the process to make soil? What is loamy, Sandy soil? Rocks are made up of? What type of rock particles are there in the soil? How many types of soil are there in the world? I want to know more about Gravel. How is soil profile formed? How is clayey soil useful for crops? What type of soil should be used for making 'Sarah’?” may be needed. From the diagrams (made by learners) presented in the study, possible sites of alternative framework may be explored in the ideas like - Water is between humus and clay, sand gravels as if no water exists between the space in between. These type of diagrams can be considered by the teacher to be starting point of their explorations of the learners’ Alternative Frameworks.

References

  • Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt: Rinehart & Winston.
  • Barrass, R. (1984). Some Misconceptions and Misunderstandings Perpetuated by Teachers and Textbooks of Biology. Journal of Biology Education, 201–205.
  • Black, S. (2006). Is Science Education Failing Students? American School Board Journal, (November), 48–51.
  • , 549–561. http://doi.org/10.1080/0950069900120507
  • Boo, H. K. (1998). Students’ understandings of chemical bonds and the energetics of chemical reactions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(5), 569–581.
  • . Routledge. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=Y1xetwAACAAJ&pgis=1
  • Hancock, C. H. (1940). An evaluation of certain popular science misconceptions. Science Education, 24, 208–213.
  • Lee, M. (2007, November). High School Students’ Alternative Ideas about Chemical Bonding. Dr. Foley. SED 690.
  • Lucariello, J. (2012). How Do My Students Think: Diagnosing Student Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/education/k12/student-thinking.aspx
  • Weiler, B. (1998). Children’s misconceptions about science. Operation Physics. American Institute of Physics. Http://amasci. Com/miscon/opphys. Html (accessed March 26, 2007).
  • Worth, K. (1999). The Power of Children’s Thinking (2nd ed.). Washington DC: National Science Foundation.

 

 

STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF TEACHER EDUCATORS TOWARDS INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF TEACHER EDUCATORS TOWARDS INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

Rajbir Kaur,
Assistant Professor,
Sri Sai College of Education,
Badhani, Pkt.

Introduction

Advances in technology have caused vital changes in many domains of societal and individual life. As such, technology has also influenced the way education at all levels was done. As an innovative tool, technology has played a central role in improving teaching and learning in light of educational reforms around the globe (Kahveci, Sahin and Genc, 2011). Integrating technology in education system can enhance teaching and learning activities in ways that can support student-centered teaching with more active student involvement in the learning process. ICT enables the teachers to have access to multimedia learning resources, which support constructive concept development, will allow the teacher to focus more on being a facilitator to a learner by providing personal attention. Teachers can use ICT to plan lessons more efficiently and more effectively. ICT increases efficiency in planning and preparation of work due to a more collaborative approach between teachers. ICT enables teachers to cooperate more and share curriculum plans with colleges. Effective ICT use in education increases teachers’ training and professional development needs. For educational practices to benefit from technology in an optimum way, a number of factors need to be taken into consideration. Two of these are technological infrastructure and teachers. Teachers have always been the central agents in the utilization of any reform based innovation. As Arslan (2003) underscores, a school with an adequate technological base may not succeed to provide technology supported if teachers are not willing to do so and do not carry a positive attitude toward using technology in their teaching. The success of any initiatives to implement technology in an educational programme depends strongly upon the support and attitudes of teacher educators involved. It has been suggested that if teachers believed or perceived proposed computer programme as fulfilling neither their own or their students' needs, they are not likely to attempt to introduce technology into their teaching and learning. Among the factors that affect the successful use of computers in the classroom are teachers' attitudes towards computers (Huang and Liaw, 2005). Attitude, in turn, constitutes various dimensions. Some examples of these are perceived usefulness, computer confidence (Rovai and Childress, 2002), training (Tsitouridou and Vryzas, 2003), gender (Sadik, 2006), knowledge about computers (Yuen, Law and Chan, 1999), anxiety, confidence, and liking (Yildirim, 2000). Using technology enables pre-service teachers to arrange their environment and adjust their instructional strategies (Zhang and Espinosa, 1997). On the part of teacher educators, there is a need to understand the dimensions that influence teachers' attitudes towards ICT as a means for effective development of teacher training curriculum that will prepare teachers to face the challenges in the information age (Fisher, 2000).

Justification of the Study

The rapid advancement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been greatly influenced to the teaching learning process. Integration of ICT in classroom helps to create an environment for students' activities that lead to meaningful and sustainable learning experiences. This integration supports students in their constructive thinking and allows them to transcend their cognitive limitations. It is possible to bring the process of learning beyond the boundaries of classroom by exploring new possibilities of ICT. One of the basic requirements for education in this era of information explosion is to prepare learners for participation in a networked information society. This basic  requirements can be available only when teacher educators aware about ICT very well because teacher is an effective and dominating factor among the ones contributing to educational improvements. The teacher effectiveness depends mainly on the teachers' attitude, characteristics and the classroom phenomena such as environment and climate, organisation and management. Various commissions and committees have recommended methods of bringing about qualitative improvements in education. As a result, the teachers are motivated, inspired and endured to develop better curriculum, text books and teaching aids. But, all the efforts are meaningless unless they are not having the positive attitude towards educational technology. Regardless of the quantity and quality of technology placed in classrooms, the key to how those tools are used is the teacher; therefore teacher educators must have the competence and right attitude towards technology (Kadel, 2005) because they have the command in their hands of preparing future teachers, so their attitude towards ICT integration is very must to know. Hence, the present study was selected by the investigator.

Objectives of the Study

  1. To study the attitude of Teacher educators towards ICT.
  2. To study the difference in the attitude of male and female teacher educators towards ICT.
  3. To study the difference in the attitude of rural and urban teacher educators towards ICT.

Hypotheses of the Study

  1. Teacher educators have favorable attitude towards ICT.
  2. There is no significant difference in the attitude of male and female teacher educators towards ICT.
  3. There is no significant difference in the attitude of rural and urban teacher educators towards ICT.

Methodology

The present study was aimed at studying the attitude of teacher educators towards ICT. For this purpose Descriptive Survey Method was used.

Sample

For the present study, out of 22 districts in Punjab, Gurdaspur and Amritsar district was selected randomly.  Then 100 teacher educators were selected randomly from ten education colleges. From 100   teacher educators 50 male (25 rural and 25 urban) and 50 female (25 rural and 25 urban) were selected randomly.

Tool   Used

In the present study, Computer Attitude Scale (CAS) (Khatoon & Sharma, 2000) was used to collect the required information. The reliability of the scale determined through split half reliability coefficient is 0.86. Also reliability of the scale determined through Kuder- Richardson formula is 0.93.

Statistical Techniques   Used

In the present study, the following statistical techniques were used: Mean, Standard deviation, t-test

Analysis and Interpretation of Data

The data was carefully analyzed employing the appropriate statistical techniques. The numerical results obtained were interpreted meaningfully. The analyzed results are discussed and presented as under:

Hypothesis-I: ‘Teacher educators have favorable attitude towards ICT’.

In order to verify Hypothesis-I, percentage of raw scores was calculated which is given in the Table- 1.

Table No.1: Showing Percentage and Level of Attitude of Different Groups

Sr. No.

Group

No. Of Teacher Educators

Percentage

Level of         Attitude

1.

Below   Average

18

18%

Unfavorable

2.

Average

30

30%

Moderate

3.

Above Average

52

 

52%

Favorable

 

 

A scrutiny of Table- 1 reveals that 18% of teacher educators have unfavourable attitude, 30% of teacher educators have moderate attitude, and 52% of teacher educators have favourable attitude towards ICT. So it is clear from Table- 1 that majority of teacher educators have favourable attitude towards ICT. Hence, Hypothesis-I ‘Teacher educators have favourable attitude towards ICT’ stands accepted.

Hypothesis-II : There is no significant difference in the attitude of male and female teacher educators towards ICT’.

Table No.2:  Mean, S.D and‘t’ Value for Attitude Scores of Male and Female Teacher Educators

Variables

Number of teacher educators

Mean

S.D

‘t’

Inference

Male teacher educators

50

198.45

11.34

 

 

1.51

Not

Significant at 0.05 level

Female teacher educators

50

195.34

9.52

 

A glance at Table -2 reveals that mean attitude scores of teacher educators are 198.45 and 195.34 respectively. The obtained‘t’ value (1.51) is not significant at 0.05 level, which shows that there exists no significant difference in the attitude of male and female teacher educators towards ICT. Hence, Hypothesis- II ‘There is no significant difference in the attitude of male and female teacher educators towards ICT’ stands accepted.

Hypothesis-III: ‘There is no significant difference in the attitude of rural and urban teacher  educators towards ICT’.

Table No.3: Mean, S.D and ‘t’ Value for Attitude Scores of  rural and urban teacher educators

Variables

Number of  teacher educators

Mean

S.D

‘t’

Inference

Rural teacher educators

50

 

201.13

 

 

13.12

2.01

Significant at 0.05 level

Urban teacher educators

50

 

196.23

 

15.11

 

A glance at table- 3 reveals that mean attitude scores of rural and urban teacher educators are 201.13 and 196.23 respectively. The obtained ‘t’ value (2.01) is significant at 0.05 level which shows that there exist a significant difference in the attitude of rural and urban teacher educators towards ICT. Hence, Hypothesis-III ‘There is no significant difference in the attitude of rural and urban teacher educators towards ICT’ stands rejected.

Main Findings

  1. 18% of teacher educators have unfavourable attitude, 30% of teacher educators have moderate attitude, and 52% of teacher educators have favourable attitude towards ICT. So it is clear that majority of teacher educators have favourable attitude towards ICT.
  2. There is no significant difference in the attitude of male and female teacher educators towards ICT.
  3. There is no significant difference in the attitude of  rural and urban teacher educators towards ICT.

Educational Implications

Today, the educational institutions all over the globe are integrating ICT with the teaching learning process in order to provide knowledge and skills to the learners to meet the challenging environment. Jeelani (2011) rightly remarks, ‘It is only through education and the integrating ICT in education that one can teach students to be participants in the growth process in this era of rapid change’. ICT provides equal number of opportunities to the large number of learners to obtain education and information. It promotes technology literacy to every citizen and especially to the younger learners. It contributes significantly to the classroom teaching learning process as it helps the teacher to make the teaching learning process more dynamic. It provides support to each and every school in sharing educational experiences with the different schools throughout the country. ICT also renews the learners’ enthusiasm because it develops the ability of self learning and individual interaction.  ICT can also help the teachers to evaluate the learners’ progress and proficiency in certain skills. Today ICT in India has greater potentialities and in promising future because our country possesses one of the largest ICT workforces in the world and there is a growing awareness building among the educationists, administrators, and policy makers on the emerging role of ICT in enhancing the process and outcome of education.

References

Becker, H. (2000). Pedagogical motivations for pupil computer use that lead to student engagement. Educational Technology, 40 (5), 5-17.

Chen, A.Y., & Looi, C.K. (1999). Teaching, learning and inquiry strategies using computer technology. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 15 (2), 62-172.

Fisher, M. (2000). Computer Skills of Initial Teacher Education Students. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 9(1), 109- 123.

Garret, H.E.(2004). Statistics  in Psychology and Education. New Delhi: Paragon International Publishers.

Huang, H. M. & Liaw, S. S. (2005). Exploring User's Attitudes and Intentions toward the Web as a Survey Tool. Computers in Human Behavior, 21(5), 729-743.

Jelaani, S. (2011). National Mission on Education through ICT: Financial Support to Educational Institutions. University News, 49(24), 13-19.

Kadel, R. (2005). How teacher attitude affect technology. Learning  and Leading with Technology, 39 (5), 34-47.

Kahveci,  A., Sahin, N. & Genc, S. (2011). Computer Perceptions of Secondary School Teachers and Impacting Demographics: A Turkish Perspective. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(1), 71-80.

Koul, L. (2006). Methodology   of  Educational Research. New Dehli: Vikas publication.

Rovai,  A. P. &  Childress, M. D.  (2002).  Explaining and Predicting Resistance to Computer Anxiety Reduction among Teacher Education Students. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35(2), 226-235.

Sadýk, A. (2006). Factors Influencing Teachers' Attitudes toward Personal Use and School Use of Computers: New Evidence from a Developing Nation. Evaluation Review, 30(1), 86-113.

Tsitouridou,  M. & Vryzas,  K. (2003). Early Childho1od Teachers' Attitudes towards Computer And Information Technology: The Case of Greece. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual, 1, 187-207.

Yildirim, S. (2000). Effect of an Educational Computing Course on Pre-Service and In-service Teachers: A Discussion and Analysis of Attitudes and Use. Journal of Research on Computing in Education,32(4), 479-495.

Yuen, H.K., Law, N. & Chan, H. (1999). Improving IT Training for Serving Teachers through Evaluation. Advanced research in computers and communications in education, 2, 441-448.

Yusuf,  M.,  & Balogun,  M. (2011). Student-Teachers’ competence and attitude towards information and communication technology. Journal of Contemporary Educational Technology, 2011, 2(1), 18-36.

Zammit, S. A. (1992). Factors facilitating or hindering the use of computers in schools. Educational Research, 34, 57-66.

 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEMS OF SCHOLASTIC BACKWARDNESS OF ADOLESCENT GIRL STUDENTS AND MENTAL ABILITY

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEMS OF SCHOLASTIC BACKWARDNESS OF ADOLESCENT GIRL STUDENTS AND MENTAL ABILITY

D. Kalaivani
Ph.D. Research Scholar,
Department of Education, Annamalai University
Dr.S. Andal
Assistant Professor,
Education Wing DDE,
Department of Education, Annamalai University, India.

Abstract

This study aims at determining the relationship between Problems of scholastic backwardness of  adolescent girl students and Mental ability in Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. The related literature lacks studies concerning of adolescent girl students. Problems of scholastic backwardness of adolescent girl students Scale for constructed and standardized by the investigators and Mental ability standardized by Dr.(Mrs).Rama Tiwari and Dr. Roma Pal (1987) was used for a sample 1000 adolescent girl students in Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. Findings reveal that most of the problems of scholastic backwardness of adolescent girl students is high. The mental ability of adolescent girl students is average. Finally it was found that there exists a positive and significant relationship between problems of scholastic backwardness of adolescent girl students and Mental ability.

Key words: Problems of Scholastic Backwardness of Adolescent girl students, Mental Ability.

Introduction

 

The age of adolescent denotes a very eventful period during which the growing person makes the transaction from childhood to adulthood. It is no doubt a very important period of once life. That is rally unforgettable. It is so significant in so many aspects starting from young person's innate capacities, goals aspirations and psychological implication of transaction from the development of primary and sex, characteristics towards physical maturity and also attainment of mental and emotional maturity.

Scholastic backwardness is a condition that results from the disorder due to specific developmental scholastic skills, in which the normal patterns of skill acquisition are disturbed from the early stages of development. They are not simply a consequence of a lack of opportunity to learn nor are they due to any form of acquired brain trauma or disease. This is widely seen in the children in the age group of 7 years to 14.

The physical and psychological characteristics of adolescents and the nature of developmental tasks which they are expected to perform often pose certain challenges and problems for adjustment. Basically adolescents face problems related to their home, school and society.

Objective of the Study

  • To find out the problems of scholastic backwardness of adolescent girl students.
  • To find out the level of mental ability of adolescent girl students.
  • To find out whether there is any significant relationship between problems of scholastic backwardness and mental ability of adolescent girl students.

Hypothesis of the study

  • The problems of scholastic backwardness of adolescent girl students is low.
  • The level of mental ability of adolescent girl students is low.
  • There is no significant relationship between problems of scholastic backwardness and mental ability of adolescent girl students.

Method of Study

In order to find out the solution of the problem in a systematic and scientific manner, a research design is to be prepared by the investigator. The research design is a blue print and it is essential part of any research work. In the present study the investigator followed normative survey method.

Sampling Technique

The investigator of the study planned to collect data from 1000 adolescent girl students. So, the investigator distributed and collected as many as 1000 completed data from the target group. The present study consists of 1000 adolescent girl students in Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu in India. The sample was selected by using simple random sampling technique.

Analysis and Interpretation Data

In the present study the data collected from the 1000 of adolescent girls were analyzed using Descriptive and Correlation statistics. The analysis and interpretation are given the following tables.

Hypothesis-1

The problems of scholastic backwardness of adolescent girl students is low.

Table 1: Showing the Mean and Standard Deviation Values of Problems of Scholastic Backwardness of Adolescent Girl Students

Variable

N

Mean

SD

Scholastic Backwardness of Adolescent Girl Students

1000

288.19

22.51

It is evident from the Table 1 , the calculated mean score of entire sample is found to be 288.19 and the standard deviation value is 22.51. The mean score is more than the mid value of 210. Therefore Hypothesis 1 is rejected and hence it is inferred that the problems of scholastic backwardness of adolescent girl students is high.

Hypothesis-2

The level of mental ability of adolescent girl students is low.

Table 2: Showing the Mean and Standard Deviation Values of Problems of Scholastic Backwardness of Adolescent Girl Students

Variable

N

Mean

SD

Mental

Ability

1000

108.27

13.31

It is evident from the Table 2, the calculated mean score of entire sample is found to be 108.27 and the standard deviation value is 13.31. The mean score is between than the average value range (90-109). Therefore Hypothesis 2 is rejected. Hence, it is inferred that the average level mental ability of adolescent girl students.

Hypothesis-3

There is no significant relationship between problems of scholastic backwardness and mental ability of adolescent girl students.

 

Table 3: Co-efficient Correlation Between Problems of scholastic backwardness of Adolescent girl students and Mental ability

Variable

N

‘r’ Value

Level of Significant at 0.01 level

Problems of scholastic backwardness of Adolescent girl students and

Mental ability

1000

0.057

S

It is evident from the Table 3., the calculated ‘r’ values are found to be 0.057 is significant at 0.01 level. Hence, the framed null hypothesis 3 is rejected. Hence it is inferred that there is positive significant relationship between problems of scholastic backwardness and mental ability of adolescent girl students.

Findings

  • The problems of scholastic backwardness of adolescent girl students is high.
  • The level of mental ability of adolescent girl students is average.
  • There is positive significant relationship between problems of scholastic backwardness and mental ability of adolescent girl students.

Reference

Agarwal, Y.P. (1986). Statistical Methods Concepts, Application and Computation, Delhi: Sterling Publishers.

Henry E Garret, (2008). Statistics in Psychology and Education, Delhi: Surjeet Publications.

John W Best, & James V Khan, (2006). Research in Education, Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Kothari, C. R. (2004): Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques (2nd Revised         Edition), New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

Santosh AK. Scholastic backwardness in children attending normal school. AP J Psychol  Med, 15(2), 251-4.

Sathyabama  and Jeryda Gnanajane (2014). Family Environment And Mental Health Of   Adolescent Girls. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 3(6), 46-49.

 

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND TEACHING ATTITUDE OF B.Ed STUDENT

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND TEACHING ATTITUDE OF  B.Ed STUDENT

Dr.Sunita Goel,
Assistant Professor
G.G.S.College of Education,
Giddarbaha. Distt.Sri Muktsar Sahib
Punjab
Anu,
M.Ed. Student

Abstract

The objective of the present study is to investigate the emotional intelligence and teaching attitude of the B.Ed students of Muktsar district of Punjab state. The sample consisted of 60 B.Ed. students from different colleges of Muktsar district. Stratified random sampling technique was used to collect the sample. The data was collected by using Teacher Attitude Inventory developed by Dr. S.P. Ahluwalia and Emotional Intelligence Inventory by Dr. S.K. Mangal and Dr. Shubra Mangal. The data was analyzed by using  coefficient of correlation. It is observed from the results that   majority of the B.Ed. students  had less emotional intelligence and  less favourable attitude towards teaching.Results also revealed  that emotional intelligence and teaching attitude are correlated with each other.

Introduction

We are at the beginning of a new century and now days, Emotional intelligence is considered more important than intelligence in the success of a person. Historically speaking the term emotional intelligence was introduced in 1990 by two American university professors Dr. John Mayer and Dr. Peter Salovey in their attempt to develop a scientific measure of knowing the differences in people’s ability in the areas of emotions. However the credit for popularizing the concept of emotional intelligence goes to another American psychologist Danel Goleman (1998).Emotional intelligence is “the ability to perceive accurately appraise and expresses emotions, generated feeling that facilitate thoughts and an ability to regulate emotions to promote growth.”(Mayor, Salovey 1997).Bar-on-Reuven (1997) defined a model of emotional intelligence “as array of non cognitive capabilities, competencies and skills that influenced one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental emends and pressures.”Emotional intelligence consists of “abilities such as being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustration: to control impulse and delay gratification; to regulate one’s moods and keep distress from swamping the ability to think, to empathize and to hope.” (Goleman, D (1995). The whole hearted devotion to teaching is the primary requisite of any teacher. A teacher’s attitude constitutes important conditions of successful teaching and learning. Positive attitude towards teaching contribute towards professional success and negative attitude towards failure. It is quite logical to have positive attitude towards their job.

Justification Of The Problem

Attitude is an important human trait or characteristic, which contributes to learning, problem solving thinking and all around development of personality. It is true that the attitude of a person towards his profession plays an important role in achieving desirable success. The attitude of the teacher towards teaching constitutes an important condition of successful teaching and learning. Positive attitude towards teaching contributes towards professional success and negative towards failure. Attitude of a person is very much depending upon his emotions and feelings. To acquire a favorable attitude a person should be emotional intelligent. He should have the ability to manage and control his own emotion and to understand the emotions of others. According to above discussion the attitude of person has some significant relationship with emotional intelligence. So the purpose of present study is to see whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and teaching attitude of B.Ed students or not.

Statement Of The Problem :"Emotional Intelligence And Teaching Attitude Of B.Ed Students" 

 

Objectives Of Study

  • To study the emotional Intelligence of the B.Ed students of Muktsar District.,
  • To study Teaching attitude of B.Ed students of Muktsar District
  • To study the correlation between emotional intelligence and teaching attitude of the B.Ed Students of Muktsar District.

Hypothesis Of The Study :There is significant correlation between the emotional intelligence and teaching attitude of the B.Ed students. 

 

Method Used :Normative survey method was applied in this study to find out the Emotional intelligence and teaching attitude of B.Ed Students. 

 

Sample :The investigator has taken randomly a sample of 60 prospective teachers from the four colleges of Education in Muktsar District of Punjab. 

 

Statistical Techniques Used. :Data was analysed by Mean, S.D. and coefficient of correlation was calculated. 

 

Tools: In this investigation the investigator has used the “Teacher Attitude Inventory” developed by Dr. S.P. Ahluwalia and Emotional Intelligence Inventory by Dr. S.K. Mangal and Dr. Shubra Mangal.

Table No.1:  Distribution of B.Ed students on the Basis of Emotional intelligence(N=60)

Class Interval

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative

Percentage

81-85

76-80

71-75

66-70

61-65

56-60

51-55

46-50

40-45

1

8

5

5

8

5

9

14

5

1.8

13.4

8.3

8.3

13.3

8.3

15

23.3

8.3

100

98.2

84.8

76.5

68.2

54.9

46.6

31.6

8.3

60

100

 

The table 1 shows that the mean score of B.Ed. students on emotional intelligence came out to be 59.4 it depicts that 46.6% of B.Ed. students have their  emotional intelligence score up to 51-55 class interval, as compared to 8.3% being between56-60 and remaining 45.1% scoring 61 and above. It may also be seen from the table 1 that maximum number of B.Ed. students  that is 14 (23.33%) scored in the range of 46-50. Majority of the B.Ed students have low emotional intelligence.

Analysis of teaching attitude score of B.Ed students

The researcher collected the scores of teaching attitude of B.Ed students with the help of Teacher Attitude Inventory and arranged them in a frequency distribution table given below:

Table No.2:Distribution of B.Ed students on the Basis of teaching attitude (N=60)

Class Interval

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative

Percentage

281-290

271-280

261-270

251-260

241-250

231-240

221-230

211-220

201-210

191-200

181-190

171-180

160-170

2

3

1

3

6

3

1

1

2

3

12

18

5

3.3

5

1.7

5

10

5

1.7

1.7

3.3

5

20

30

8.3

100

96.7

91.7

90

85

75

70

68.3

66.6

63.3

58.3

38.3

8.3

60

 

The table 2 shows that the mean score of B.Ed. students on teaching attitude came out to be 203.83 it depicts that 63.3% of B.Ed. students have their  teaching attitude score up to191-200 class interval, as compared to 3.3% being between201-210 and remaining 33.4% scoring 211 and above. It may also be seen from the table2 that maximum number of B.Ed. students  that is 18 (30%) scored in the range of 171-180. Majority of the B.Ed students have less favourable attitude towards teaching”.

To study the correlation between emotional intelligence and teaching attitude of the B.Ed students

Emotional intelligence and teaching attitude of B.Ed students. In pursuance of the objective stated above the co-efficient of correlation is computed by using spearman’s rank order method. The correlation table is given below between emotional intelligence and teaching attitude of B.Ed students.

Table No. 3

S. No.

Variable

No. of Students

Mean Scores

‘r’

1.

Emotional Intelligence

60

59.4

0.2496

2.

Teaching attitude

60

203.83

 

It is observed from the table 3 that the computed value of co-efficient of correlation between emotional intelligence and teaching attitude is 0.2496 (0.24) which is positive in nature that indicates a very low positive correlation. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted. Now, it can be interpreted that emotional intelligence and teaching attitude are correlated with each other. The nature of correlation can be described with the help of given interpretation chart

Findings:Majority of the B.Ed. students  had less emotional intelligence. Majority of the B.Ed. students  had  less favourable attitude towards teaching.There was a significant relationship between teaching attitude and emotional intelligence of B.Ed students.

Educational Implications

This study is truly and sincerely followed has tremendous impact on education especially for teachers. These findings can be applicable at several stages. Bar (1967) states that “to select, recruit, educator and assign teachers to particular teaching position in an acceptable manner.As this study is confined to B.Ed students, it can help in the recruitment of prospective teachers in training colleges.This study can also be used as an evaluation tool to study profession has developed or not.It is therefore most important for student teacher to develop the emotional intelligence to become a perfect teacher.

Further Suggestions

The following studies related to the present study can be undertaken.

  • The same study can also be done on all the population of M.Ed. students of India.
  • A comparative study of emotional intelligence in relation to teaching attitude of M.Ed. students and working teachers can be done.
  • A comparative study of attitude towards teaching of any other teacher education programme like M.Ed., N.T.T., DIET can be made.
  • A comparative study of attitude towards teaching of the same teacher educational programme like M.Ed. but in different areas e.g. North and south India for knowing the impact of environment.

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